Researchers Database


    Faculty Division of Natural Sciences Research Group of Biological Sciences Professor
    Institute for YAMATO and Kii-peninsula studies Director, Institute for YAMATO and Kii-peninsula studies
Last Updated :2021/07/07


Research Interests

  • pineal, eye, retina, photoreceptor, extraocular-photoreceptor, neuroendocrine, paravetricular organ 

Research Areas

  • Life sciences, Animals: biochemistry, physiology, behavioral science


  • - 1986, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Graduate School, Division of Medicine, 生理学専攻
  • - 1979, Okayama University, Faculty of Science, 生物


  • 高柳研究奨励賞, 1991

Published Papers

  • Replacement of quinolines with isoquinolines affords target metal ion switching from Zn2+ to Cd2+ in the fluorescent sensor TQLN (N,N,N ',N '-tetrakis(2-quinolylmethyl)-2,6-bis(aminomethyl) pyridine)

    Yuji Mikata; Ayaka Takekoshi; Minori Kaneda; Hideo Konno; Keiko Yasuda; Masato Aoyama; Satoshi Tamotsu

    A quinoline-based heptadentate ligand, N, N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-quinolylmethyl)- 2,6-bis(aminomethyl) pyridine (TQLN), exhibits a Zn2+ -specific fluorescence increase at 428 nm, which is assigned to excimer emission (I-Zn/I-o = 38, I-Cd/I-Zn = 24%,phi(Zn) = 0.069). In contrast, the isoquinoline counterpart 1-isoTQLN exhibits a Cd2+ -specific fluorescence increase at 365 nm attributable to monomer emission (I-Cd/I-o = 83, I-Zn/I-Cd = 19%,phi(Cd) = 0.015)., ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, Jan. 2017, DALTON TRANSACTIONS, 46 (3), 632 - 637, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Diversification of non-visual photopigment parapinopsin in spectral sensitivity for diverse pineal functions

    Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Wada, Seiji; Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Hara, Yuichiro; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Kosaka, Shigeaki; Kawakami, Koichi; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hisao; Shichida, Yoshinori; Terakita, Akihisa

    2015, Bmc Biology, 13 (1), 73, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • 8-TQEN (N,N,N ',N '-tetrakis(8-quinolylmethyl)ethylenediamine) analogs as fluorescent cadmium sensors: strategies to enhance Cd2+-induced fluorescence and Cd2+/Zn2+ selectivity

    Yuji Mikata; Ayaka Takekoshi; Asako Kizu; Yuki Nodomi; Masato Aoyama; Keiko Yasuda; Satoshi Tamotsu; Hideo Konno; Shawn C. Burdette

    In order to exploit the untapped sensing potential of the TQEN (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-quinolylmethyl)ethylenediamine) family of fluorescent probes, 8-TQEN (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(8-quinolylmethyl)ethylenediamine) analogs were designed and characterized. Although 8-TQEN lacks practicality owing to poor solubility in both aqueous media and organic solvents, 6-MeO-8-TQEN (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(6-methoxy-8-quinolylmethyl) ethylenediamine, 1b) exhibits Cd2+-selective fluorescence enhancement at 395 nm in DMF-HEPES buffer (1 : 1), (I-Cd/I-0 = 25, lambda(ex) = 332 nm, phi(Cd) = 0.025). Zn2+ induces weaker fluorescence (I-Zn/I-0 = 9, I-Zn/I-Cd = 0.35). In contrast, both the parent probes TQEN (I-Zn/I-0 = 23, I-Cd/I-Zn = 0.64) and 6-MeOTQEN (I-Zn/I-0 = 11, I-Cd/I-Zn = 1.29 exhibit higher sensitivity toward Zn2+. When the quinoline groups were replaced with 8-hydroxyquinoline different responses were observed. The propanediamine derivative, 8-TQOEPN (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(8-quinolyloxyethylene)propanediamine, 2c) exhibits significant fluorescence enhancement at 423 nm upon Cd2+ binding (lambda(ex) = 325 nm, I-Cd/I-0 = 19, phi(Cd) = 0.31). Fluorescence enhancement is Cd2+-specific as Zn2+ induces only more modest emission increases (I-Zn/I-0 = 8.8, I-Zn/I-Cd = 0.45)., ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2014, RSC ADVANCES, 4 (25), 12849 - 12856, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Neuronal Projections and Putative Interaction of Multimodal Inputs in the Subesophageal Ganglion in the Blowfly, Phormia regina

    Toru Maeda; Satoshi Tamotsu; Masayuki Iwasaki; Tomoyosi Nisimura; Miki Shimohigashi; Masaru K. Hojo; Mamiko Ozaki

    In flies, the maxillary palp possesses olfactory sensilla housing olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), which project to the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobes (ALs). The labellum possesses gustatory sensilla housing gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), which project to the primary gustatory center, the subesophageal ganglion (SOG). Using an anterograde staining method, we investigated the axonal projections of sensory receptor neurons from the maxillary palp and labellum to the SOG or other parts of brain in the blowfly, Phormia regina. We show that maxillary mechanoreceptor neurons and some maxillary ORNs project to the SOG where they establish synapses, whereas other maxillary ORNs terminate in the ipsi- and contralateral ALs. The labellar GRNs project to the SOG, and some of these neural projections partially overlap with ORN terminals from the maxillary palp. Based on these anterograde staining data and 3D models of the observed axonal projections, we suggest that interactions occur between GRNs from the labellum and ORNs from the maxillary palp. These observations strongly suggest that olfactory information from the maxillary palp directly interacts with the processing of gustatory information within the SOG of flies., OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Jun. 2014, CHEMICAL SENSES, 39 (5), 391 - 401, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Bis(2-quinolylmethyl) ethylenediaminediacetic acids (BQENDAs), TQEN-EDTA hybrid molecules as fluorescent zinc sensors

    Yuji Mikata; Saaya Takeuchi; Hideo Konno; Satoshi Iwatsuki; Sakiko Akaji; Ikuko Hamagami; Masato Aoyama; Keiko Yasuda; Satoshi Tamotsu; Shawn C. Burdette

    Molecular hybrids of TQEN (N, N, N', N'-tetrakis(2-quinolylmethyl) ethylenediamine) and EDTA (ethylenediamine- N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid) were examined as fluorescent Zn2+ sensors. Upon the addition of Zn2+, N, N-BQENDA (N, N-bis(2-quinolylmethyl) ethylenediamine-N', N'-diacetic acid, 1a) exhibits a 30-fold emission enhancement at 456 nm (lambda(ex) = 315 nm, phi Zn = 0.018) in buffer (HEPES, pH = 7.5, 100 mM KCl). The fluorescence enhancement is Zn2+-specific as Cd2+ induces much smaller increases (I-Cd/I-0 = 5 and ICd/IZn = 16%). These spectroscopic properties, as well as the excellent water-solubility, represent a significant improvement compared to the parent TQEN sensor (phi Zn = 0.007, I-Cd/I-Zn = 64%). The isoquinoline analog N, N-1-isoBQENDA (N, N-bis(1-isoquinolylmethyl) ethylenediamine-N', N'-diacetic acid, 1b) possesses a similar Zn2+ fluorescence response to the parent 1-isoTQEN (N, N, N', N'-tetrakis(1-isoquinolylmethyl) ethylenediamine) sensor, but exhibits diminished fluorescence intensity. Apo 1a and 1b extract more than 50% of the Zn2+ from an equimolar amount of [Zn(TPEN)](2+) (TPEN = N, N, N', N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine) or [Zn(EDTA)](2-), whereas TPEN and EDTA cannot effectively remove Zn2+ from [Zn(1a)] and [Zn(1b)]. The reduction of steric crowding in [Zn(TQEN)](2+) resulting from the substitution of two quinolines with carboxylates enhances the interaction between the metal ion and the remaining quinoline nitrogen atoms. The stronger bonding interaction results in enhanced emission intensity, Zn2+ selectivity and metal ion affinity. This is in contrast to [Zn(1-isoTQEN)](2+) where the isoquinoline-carboxylate replacement does not relieve any coordination distortion, therefore no significant changes in fluorescence or metal binding properties are observed., ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2014, DALTON TRANSACTIONS, 43 (26), 10013 - 10022, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Isoquinoline-derivatized tris(2-pyridylmethyl)-amines as fluorescent zinc sensors with strict Zn2+/Cd2+ selectivity

    Yuji Mikata; Keiko Kawata; Saaya Takeuchi; Kaori Nakanishi; Hideo Konno; Saori Itami; Keiko Yasuda; Satoshi Tamotsu; Shawn C. Burdette

    Tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine-based fluorescent ligands, N,N-bis(1-isoquinolylmethyl)-2-pyridylmethyl-amine (1-isoBQPA) and N,N-bis(7-methoxy-1-isoquinolylmethyl)-2-pyridylmethylamine (7-MeO-1-isoBQPA), have been prepared and the Zn2+-induced fluorescence enhancement has been investigated. Upon excitation at 324 nm, 1-isoBQPA exhibits a very weak emission (phi = similar to 0.010) in DMF-H2O (1 : 1). Upon Zn2+ addition, the 1-isoBQPA fluorescence increases (phi(Zn) = 0.055) at 357 nm and 464 nm. The fluorescence enhancement at longer wavelengths is Zn2+-specific, whereas Cd2+ induces a small emission increase at 464 nm (I-Cd/I-0 = 1.1, I-Cd/I-Zn = 14%). The Zn2+/Cd2+ selectivity of the fluorescent response correlates with the Cd-N-isoquinoline and Zn-N-isoquinoline bond distances measured in the crystal structures. Introduction of methoxy groups into the 1-isoBQPA chromophore enhances the fluorescence significantly (phi(Zn) = 0.213), which affords 7-MeO-1-isoBQPA properties amenable for fluorescence microscopy in living cells., ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2014, DALTON TRANSACTIONS, 43 (28), 10751 - 10759, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Soft picosecond X-ray laser nanomodification of gold and aluminum surfaces

    S. V. Starikov; A. Ya Faenov; T. A. Pikuz; I. Yu Skobelev; V. E. Fortov; S. Tamotsu; M. Ishino; M. Tanaka; N. Hasegawa; M. Nishikino; T. Kaihori; T. Imazono; M. Kando; T. Kawachi

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of aluminum (Al) and gold (Au) surface modification by soft X-ray laser pulse are presented. Well-polished samples of Al and Au are irradiated by ps-duration pulse with wavelength of 13.9 nm at the energy range of 24-72 nJ. Differences in the melting and the ablation processes for those materials are observed. It is shown that at low laser pulse energy, the nanoscale ripples on the surface may be induced by melting without following ablation. In that case, the nanoscale changes in the surface are caused by splash of molten metal under gradient of fluence. At higher laser pulse energy, the ablation process occurs and craters are formed on the surface. However, the melting determines the size of the modified surface at all ranges of the laser energies. For interpretation of experimental results, the atomistic simulations of melting and ablation processes in Al and Au are provided. The calculated threshold fluencies for melting and ablation are well consistent with measured ones., SPRINGER, Sep. 2014, APPLIED PHYSICS B-LASERS AND OPTICS, 116 (4), 1005 - 1016, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Observations of surface modifications induced by the multiple pulse irradiation using a soft picosecond x-ray laser beam

    Masahiko Ishino; Anatoly Y. Faenov; Momoko Tanaka; Satoshi Tamotsu; Noboru Hasegawa; Masaharu Nishikino; Tatiana A. Pikuz; Takeshi Kaihori; Tetsuya Kawachi

    To study the interactions between picosecond soft x-ray laser (SXRL) beams and material surfaces, gold (Au), copper (Cu), and silicon (Si) surfaces were irradiated with SXRL pulses having a wavelength of 13.9 nm and a duration of similar to 7 ps. Following irradiation, the surfaces of the substrates were observed using a scanning electron microscope and an atomic force microscope. With single pulse irradiation, ripple-like structures were formed on the Au and Cu surfaces. These structures were different from previously investigated conical structures formed on an Al surface. In addition, it was confirmed that the development of modified structures, i.e., growth of hillocks on the Au and Cu surfaces, was observed after multiple SXRL pulse exposures. However, on the Si surface, deep holes that seemed to be melted structures induced by the accumulation of multiple pulses of irradiations were found. Therefore, it was concluded that SXRL beam irradiation of various material surfaces causes different types of surface modifications, and the changes in the surface behaviors are attributed to the differences in the elemental properties, such as the attenuation length of x-ray photons., SPRINGER, Jan. 2013, APPLIED PHYSICS A-MATERIALS SCIENCE & PROCESSING, 110 (1), 179 - 188, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Histone H3 is absent from organelle nucleoids in BY-2 cultured tobacco cells

    Mari Takusagawa; Satoshi Tamotsu; Atsushi Sakai

    The core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) are nuclear-localised proteins that play a central role in the formation of nucleosome structure. They have long been considered to be absent from extra-nuclear, DNA-containing organelles; that is plastids and mitochondria. Recently, however, the targeting of core histone H3 to mitochondria, and the presence of nucleosome-like structures in mitochondrial nucleoids, were proposed in cauliflower and tobacco respectively. Thus, we examined whether histone H3 was present in plant organelles and participated in the organisation of nucleoid structure, using highly purified organelles and organelle nucleoids isolated from BY-2 cultured tobacco cells. Immunofluorescence microscopic observations and Western blotting analyses demonstrated that histone H3 was absent from organelles and organelle nucleoids, consistent with the historical hypothesis. Thus, the organisation of organelle nucleoids, including putative nucleosome-like repetitive structures, should be constructed and maintained without participation of histone H3., WILEY-BLACKWELL, Jul. 2013, CELL BIOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, 37 (7), 748 - 754, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Diversity of nematomorph and cohabiting nematode parasites in riparian ecosystems around the Kii Peninsula, Japan

    Takuya Sato; Katsutoshi Watanabe; Satoshi Tamotsu; Akihiko Ichikawa; Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa

    Nematomorph parasites manipulate terrestrial invertebrate hosts to seek out and enter streams, thereby deriving substantial energy subsidies to stream salmonids. Despite this potential ecological role of nematomorphs, knowledge of their diversity remains unclear. Using molecular (i.e., 18S rRNA and mitochondrial COI genes) and morphological approaches, we explored the species diversity of suspected nematomorph specimens, as well as their terrestrial orthopteran hosts, in 10 stream and riparian ecosystems around the Kii Peninsula, central Honshu, Japan. We distinguished seven species of nematomorphs belonging to three genera based on molecular and morphological data. The identifications by the two approaches were consistent with each other at the genus level but partly not at the species level. Furthermore, among the suspected nematomorph specimens, eight nematode species belonging to the orders Mermithida and Trichocephalida were found from two sites. Several orthopterans, mainly camel crickets, were infected by nematomorphs and by a nematode without obvious species specificity. These results suggest that diverse parasites and their orthopteran hosts drive the parasite-mediated energy flow across the stream and riparian ecosystems., CANADIAN SCIENCE PUBLISHING, NRC RESEARCH PRESS, Jul. 2012, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 90 (7), 829 - 838, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Nanomodification of gold surface by picosecond soft x-ray laser pulse

    Genri Norman; Sergey Starikov; Vladimir Stegailov; Vladimir Fortov; Igor Skobelev; Tatyana Pikuz; Anatoly Faenov; Sataoshi Tamotsu; Yoshiaki Kato; Masahiko Ishino; Momoko Tanaka; Noboru Hasegawa; Masaharu Nishikino; Toshiuki Ohba; Takeshi Kaihori; Yoshihiro Ochi; Takashi Imazono; Yuji Fukuda; Masaki Kando; Tetsuya Kawachi

    We show experimentally the possibility of nanostructuring (about 20 nm) of gold surface by picosecond soft x-ray single pulse with low fluence of similar to 20 mJ/cm(2). The nanometer-scale changes of the surface structure are due to the splash of molten gold under fluence gradient of the laser beam. In addition, the ablation process occurs at slightly higher fluence of similar to 50 mJ/cm(2). The atomistic model of ablation is developed which reveals that the low threshold fluence of this process is due to the build-up of the high electron pressure and the comparatively low electron-ion energy relaxation rate in gold. The calculated ablation depths as a function of the irradiation fluence are in good agreement with the experimental data measured for gold surface modification with ultra-short duration soft x-ray and visible lasers. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [], AMER INST PHYSICS, Jul. 2012, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 112 (1), 013104, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Quinoline-Based, Glucose-Pendant Fluorescent Zinc Probes

    Yuji Mikata; Anna Ugai; Keiko Yasuda; Saori Itami; Satoshi Tamotsu; Hideo Konno; Satoshi Iwatsuki

    Quinoline-based tetradentate ligands with glucose pendants, N,N'-bis[2-(beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N'-bis[(6-methoxyquinolin-2-yl)methyl]ethylenediamine (N,N'-6-MeOBQBGEN) and its N,N-counterpart, N,N-6-MeOBQBGEN, have been prepared, and their fluorescence-spectral changes upon Zn binding were investigated. Upon excitation at 336 nm, N,N'-6-MeOBQBGEN showed weak fluorescence (?approximate to 0.016) in HEPES buffer (HEPES 50 mM, KCl 100 mM, pH 7.5). In the presence of Zn, N,N'-6-MeOBQBGEN exhibited a significant increase in fluorescence (?=0.096) at 414 nm. The fluorescence enhancement is specific for Zn and Cd (ICd/IZn of 50% at 414 nm). On the other hand, N,N-6-MeOBQBGEN exhibited a smaller fluorescence enhancement upon Zn complexation (?=0.043, ?ex=334 nm, ?em=407 nm) compared with N,N'-6-MeOBQBGEN. Fluorescence microscopic analysis using PC-12 rat adrenal cells revealed that N,N'-6-MeOBQBGEN exhibits a 1.8-fold higher fluorescence-signal response to Zn ion concentration compared with sugar-depleted compound 2 (N,N'-bis[(6-methoxyquinolin-2-yl)methyl]ethylenediamine), due to its enhanced uptake into cells due to the targeting ability of the attached carbohydrates., WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, Sep. 2012, CHEMISTRY & BIODIVERSITY, 9 (9), 2064 - 2075, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Beta-Arrestin Functionally Regulates the Non-Bleaching Pigment Parapinopsin in Lamprey Pineal

    Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Yoshinori Shichida; Tadashi Oishi; Satoshi Tamotsu; Akihisa Terakita

    The light response of vertebrate visual cells is achieved by light-sensing proteins such as opsin-based pigments as well as signal transduction proteins, including visual arrestin. Previous studies have indicated that the pineal pigment parapinopsin has evolutionally and physiologically important characteristics. Parapinopsin is phylogenetically related to vertebrate visual pigments. However, unlike the photoproduct of the visual pigment rhodopsin, which is unstable, dissociating from its chromophore and bleaching, the parapinopsin photoproduct is stable and does not release its chromophore. Here, we investigated arrestin, which regulates parapinopsin signaling, in the lamprey pineal organ, where parapinopsin and rhodopsin are localized to distinct photoreceptor cells. We found that beta-arrestin, which binds to stimulated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) other than opsin-based pigments, was localized to parapinopsin-containing cells. This result stands in contrast to the localization of visual arrestin in rhodopsin-containing cells. Beta-arrestin bound to cultured cell membranes containing parapinopsin light-dependently and translocated to the outer segments of pineal parapinopsin-containing cells, suggesting that beta-arrestin binds to parapinopsin to arrest parapinopsin signaling. Interestingly, beta-arrestin colocalized with parapinopsin in the granules of the parapinopsin-expressing cell bodies under light illumination. Because beta-arrestin, which is a mediator of clathrin-mediated GPCR internalization, also served as a mediator of parapinopsin internalization in cultured cells, these results suggest that the granules were generated light-dependently by beta-arrestin-mediated internalization of parapinopsins from the outer segments. Therefore, our findings imply that beta-arrestin-mediated internalization is responsible for eliminating the stable photoproduct and restoring cell conditions to the original dark state. Taken together with a previous finding that the bleaching pigment evolved from a non-bleaching pigment, vertebrate visual arrestin may have evolved from a "beta-like'' arrestin by losing its clathrin-binding domain and its function as an internalization mediator. Such changes would have followed the evolution of vertebrate visual pigments, which generate unstable photoproducts that independently decay by chromophore dissociation., PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, Jan. 2011, PLOS ONE, 6 (1), e16402, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Nanoscale surface modifications and formation of conical structures at aluminum surface induced by single shot exposure of soft x-ray laser pulse

    Masahiko Ishino; Anatoly Ya. Faenov; Momoko Tanaka; Noboru Hasegawa; Masaharu Nishikino; Satoshi Tamotsu; Tatiana A. Pikuz; Nail A. Inogamov; Vasily V. Zhakhovsky; Igor Yu. Skobelev; Vladimir E. Fortov; Viktor A. Khohlov; Vadim V. Shepelev; Toshiyuki Ohba; Takeshi Kaihori; Yoshihiro Ochi; Takashi Imazono; Tetsuya Kawachi

    We irradiated the soft x-ray laser (SXRL) pulses having a wavelength of 13.9 nm, a duration time of 7 ps, and fluences of up to 27 mJ/cm(2) to aluminum (Al) surface. After the irradiation process, the modified surface was observed with the visible microscope, the scanning electron microscope, and the atomic force microscope. The surface modifications caused by the SXRL pulses were clearly seen, and it was found that the conical structures having about 70-150 nm in diameters were formed under a single pulse shot. The conical structures were formed in the features with the average depth of about 40 nm, and this value was in accordance with the attenuation length of the SXRL beam for Al. However, those conical structures were deconstructed under the multiple pulse shots exposure. Thermomechanical modeling of SXRL laser interaction with Al surface, which explains nanostructure surface modification, was provided. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3525980], AMER INST PHYSICS, Jan. 2011, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 109 (1), 013504‐1-013504‐6, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • The Roles of THY1 and Integrin Beta3 in Cell Adhesion During Theca Cell Layer Formation and the Effect of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone on THY1 and Integrin Beta3 Localization in Mouse Ovarian Follicles

    Saori Itami; Satoshi Tamotsu; Atsushi Sakai; Keiko Yasuda

    The mechanism of theca cell layer formation in mammalian ovaries has not been elucidated. In the present study, we examined the roles of THY1 and integrin beta3 in theca cell layer formation during mouse folliculogenesis. The localization pattern of THY1 and integrin beta3 in adult mouse ovary was investigated immunohistochemically. The strongest THY1 signal was observed in theca cell layers from secondary to preantral follicles, at which time theca cells have begun to participate in follicle formation. Integrin beta3 also localized to the theca cell layer of secondary to preantral follicles and showed a localization pattern similar to that of THY1. Moreover, the role of THY1 in theca cell layer formation was examined using a follicle culture system. When anti-THY1 antibody was added to this culture, no theca cell layers were formed, and the granulosa cells were distanced from each other. Because a THY1 signal was not observed in ovaries at stages earlier than prepuberty, THY1 localization also appeared to be affected by mouse development. This possibility was examined by determining the effect of administering follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and 17beta-estradiol to 7-day-old mice on THY1 localization in the ovary 3 days later. Only follicle-stimulating hormone induced a THY1 signal in 10-day-old mouse ovaries. No THY1 signal was observed in untreated 10-day-old ovaries. In conclusion, THY1 might play a role in cell adhesion via binding to integrin beta3 in mouse ovaries. The present results suggest that THY1 localization may be affected by follicle-stimulating hormone in mouse ovaries., SOC STUDY REPRODUCTION, May 2011, BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION, 84 (5), 986 - 995, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Methoxy-substituted isoTQEN family for enhanced fluorescence response toward zinc ion

    Yuji Mikata; Azusa Yamashita; Keiko Kawata; Hideo Konno; Saori Itami; Keiko Yasuda; Satoshi Tamotsu

    Previously, we have reported that 1- and 3-isoTQENs (N, N, N', N'-tetrakis(1- or 3-isoquinolylmethyl)ethylenediamines) exhibit a specific fluorescence enhancement toward zinc ion. In this study, three methoxy-substituted derivatives of 1-isoTQEN were synthesized and their fluorescent response toward zinc ion was studied. The substitution pattern of the methoxy group significantly changes the solubility of compounds in aqueous DMF, lambda(max) in the absorption spectra, excitation/emission wavelengths and fluorescence intensity of zinc complexes. In the presence of zinc ion, 7-MeO-1-isoTQEN exhibits higher fluorescence intensity and longer excitation/emission wavelengths (lambda(ex) = 342 nm, lambda(em) = 526 nm) than 6-MeO-1-isoTQEN (lambda(ex) = 303 nm, lambda(em) = 469 nm) and 5,6,7-triMeO-1-isoTQEN (lambda(ex) = 340 nm, lambda(em) = 504 nm). The fluorescence intensity of a zinc complex of 7-MeO-1-isoTQEN (phi = 0.122) is four times higher than the parent 1-isoTQEN (phi = 0.034) under the same conditions. The crystal structure of 7-MeO-1-isoTQEN-Zn complex reveals that all six nitrogen atoms participate to the metal coordination with ideal octahedral geometry, affording significantly high metal binding affinity comparable with TPEN (N, N, N', N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine). 7-MeO-1-isoTQEN detects zinc ion concentration change in cells by fluorescence microscopic analysis., ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2011, DALTON TRANSACTIONS, 40 (16), 4059 - 4066, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Laser ablation of gold: Experiment and atomistic simulation

    S. V. Starikov; V. V. Stegailov; G. E. Norman; V. E. Fortov; M. Ishino; M. Tanaka; N. Hasegawa; M. Nishikino; T. Ohba; T. Kaihori; E. Ochi; T. Imazono; T. Kavachi; S. Tamotsu; T. A. Pikuz; I. Yu. Skobelev; A. Ya. Faenov

    The interaction of radiation of a picosecond X-ray laser (wavelength lambda = 13.9 nm) with targets made of a thick gold film has been studied theoretically and experimentally. It has been shown experimentally that the action of individual X-ray laser pulses with a fluence of F a parts per thousand 21 mJ/cm(2) initiates the nanostructuring of the gold surface. Explicitly taking into account the electron subsystem, we have proposed an atomistic model of ablation that makes it possible to adequately describe the experimental results. The atomistic simulation involves the ion-ion potential depending on the electron temperature T (e) . The use of such a potential makes it possible to take into account an increase in the pressure in the system with increasing T (e) and to reveal two laser ablation mechanisms., MAIK NAUKA/INTERPERIODICA/SPRINGER, Aug. 2011, JETP LETTERS, 93 (11), 642 - 647, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Co-culturing of follicles with interstitial cells in collagen gel reproduce follicular development accompanied with theca cell layer formation

    Saori Itami; Keiko Yasuda; Yuka Yoshida; Chiyuki Matsui; Sachie Hashiura; Atsushi Sakai; Satoshi Tamotsu

    Background: The mechanism of theca cell layer formation in mammalian ovaries has not been elucidated; one reason is that there is no follicle culture system that can reproduce theca cell layer formation in vitro. Therefore, a three-dimensional follicle culture system that can reproduce theca cell layer formation is required. Methods: A collagen gel was used in the follicle culture system. To determine the optimum conditions for follicle culture that can reproduce theca cell layer formation, the effects of hormonal treatment and cell types co-cultured with follicles were examined. In addition, immunohistochemistry was used to examine the properties of the cell layers formed in the outermost part of follicles. Results: Follicles maintained a three-dimensional shape and grew in collagen gel. By adding follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and co-culturing with interstitial cells, the follicles grew well, and cell layers were formed in the outermost part of follicles. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that the cells forming the outermost layers of the follicles were theca cells. Conclusion: In this study, follicle culture system that can reproduce theca cell layer formation in vitro was established. In our opinion, this system is suitable for the analysis of theca cell layer formation and contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms of folliculogenesis., BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, Dec. 2011, REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY, 9, 159, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • 1,8-Cineole Inhibits Both Proliferation and Elongation of BY-2 Cultured Tobacco Cells

    Hiroko Yoshimura; Yu Sawai; Satoshi Tamotsu; Atsushi Sakai

    Volatile monoterpenes such as 1,8-cineole inhibit the growth of Brassica campestris seedlings in a dose-dependent manner, and the growth-inhibitory effects are more severe for roots than hypocotyls. The preferential inhibition of root growth may be explained if the compounds inhibit cell proliferation more severely than cell elongation because root growth requires both elongation and proliferation of the constituent cells, whereas hypocotyl growth depends exclusively on elongation of existing cells. In order to examine this possibility, BY-2 suspension-cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were treated with 1,8-cineole, and the inhibitory effects on cell proliferation and on cell elongation were assessed quantitatively. Treatment with 1,8-cineole lowered both the mitotic index and elongation of the cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) for cell elongation was lower than that for cell proliferation. Moreover, 1,8-cineole also inhibited starch synthesis, with IC(50) lower than that for cell proliferation. Thus, the inhibitory effects of 1,8-cineole were not specific to cell proliferation; rather, 1,8-cineole seemed inhibitory to a variety of physiological activities when it was in direct contact with target cells. Based on these results, possible mechanisms for the mode of action of 1,8-cineole and for its preferential inhibition on root growth are discussed., SPRINGER, Mar. 2011, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ECOLOGY, 37 (3), 320 - 328, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Preliminary results on the reproduction of a deep-sea snailfish Careproctus rhodomelas around the active hydrothermal vent on the Hatoma Knoll, Okinawa, Japan

    A. Takemura; S. Tamotsu; T. Miwa; H. Yamamoto

    Deep-sea snailfish Careproctus rhodomelas were collected from an active hydrothermal vent using a remotely operated vehicle (R.O.V. Hyper-dolphin) and a pressurized device (Deep-Aquarium). Careproctus rhodomelas exhibited a cystovarian-type ovary containing a small number of developing oocytes at different stages, suggesting that the fish is a batch-spawner that spawns large eggs (c. 6 center dot 0 mm) several times within its life span. In vitro culture of the oocytes in the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin showed that oestradiol-17 beta production fluctuated with oocyte development, suggesting that the oocytes were at the vitellogenic stage., WILEY-BLACKWELL, Nov. 2010, JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, 77 (7), 1709 - 1715, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal


    Ferdoushi Begum; Isamu Nakatani; Satoshi Tamotsu; Taichiro Goto

    The crayfish, Procambarus clarkii exhibits various body colorations, including an albino morph that lacks melanin and red pigments, except in the compound eyes. The albino phenotype segregates in a Mendelian way and is recessive to the wild-type (Nakatani, 1999). In the present study, we have examined the reproductive capacity of albino morphs of P. clarkii. Crosses between albino and wildtype individuals revealed that the number of juveniles produced from a couple of albino individuals was lower than that from a couple of wild-types. Both pleiotropy and inbreeding effects may be concerned in causing the lower fecundity in the albino form. When albino females mated with wildtype and albino males successively, both normal and white coloration appeared in the offspring of those crosses, indicating that both males had taken part in fertilization. This result is different from an earlier study on sperm competition in crayfish, in which paternity could invariably be attributed to the second male. The number of offspring from the multiple-mated females was higher than that of singly mated females. Thus, mating with multiple males may increase the effective fertility in albino females of P. clarkii., BRILL ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS, 2010, CRUSTACEANA, 83 (2), 169 - 178, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Observation of actin filaments in leydig cells with a contact-type soft X-ray microscope with laser plasma X-ray source

    TAMOTSU Satoshi; Kado, M; Ishino, M; Tamotsu, S; Yasuda, K; Kishimoto, M; Nishikino, M; Kinjo, Y; Shinohara, K

    2010, IEEJ Transactions on Electronics, Information and Systems, 130 (10), 1774-1778

  • Effects of Growth Phase and Cell Density on Cryptogein-induced Programmed Cell Death in Suspension-cultured Tobacco BY-2 Cells: Development of a Model System for 100% Efficient Hypersensitive Cell Death

    Yu Sawai; Satoshi Tamotsu; Kazuyuki Kuchitsu; Atsushi Sakai

    We developed a novel model system for hypersensitive cell death, in which the elicitor induced cell death in suspension-cultured cells with 100% efficiency. The 100% efficient cell death was achieved when tobacco BY-2 cells at stationary-phase were diluted to 1 X 10(5) cells/ml with conditioned medium and treated with 1.5 mu M of cryptogein, an oomycete-derived proteinaceous elicitor. During the cell-death process, nuclear chromatin fragmentation, activation of several genes associated with hypersensitive response (HR), and induction of several genes related to antimicrobial activity were observed. The results strongly suggest that the cells undergoing HR cell death activated antimicrobial mechanism while executing cell-death program., UNIV TOKYO CYTOLOGIA, Dec. 2010, CYTOLOGIA, 75 (4), 389 - 396, web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Ultrastructural Analysis of Lipid Incorporation in the Embryonic Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Yumi Yamahama; Yoshinori Muranaka; Yoko Kumakiri; Satoshi Tamotsu; Takahiko Hariyama

    Insect eggs store many lipid droplets as an energy source for embryonic development. We previously reported that lipid droplets are incorporated into embryos in three steps in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The midgut plays important roles in lipid incorporation during the second and third steps, whereas the manner of lipid incorporation during the first step is still unknown. In this study, we focused on how lipids were incorporated into the embryo in the first step, compared with the mechanisms used in the second step, by means of transmission electron microscopy using the high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution method. At the beginning of the first step (blastoderm formation stage), some lipid droplets were observed in each cell of the embryonic tissues. Lipid droplets were seen to be derived from the oocyte peripheral cytoplasm by superficial cleavage. At the end of the first step (late appendage formation stage), some lipid droplets were attached to the elongated rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). It seemed that formation of the lipid droplets occurred in embryonic cells at the end of the first step, because the rER is the site of biogenesis of lipid droplets. The incorporation of lipid droplets in the first step may be subdivided into two stages: the blastoderm formation stage and the subsequent stage before blastokinesis., ZOOLOGICAL SOC JAPAN, May 2009, ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 26 (5), 321 - 324, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Bisquinoline-based fluorescent zinc sensors

    Yuji Mikata; Azusa Yamashita; Ayano Kawamura; Hideo Konno; Yuka Miyamoto; Satoshi Tamotsu

    Several bisquinoline derivatives,N,N'-bis(2-quinolylmethyl)-N,N'-dialkylethylnediamines (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, isopropyl and t-butyl), have been synthesized and their fluorescent responses toward zinc ion were investigated. These compounds exhibit zinc ion-induced fluorescence and their intensities decrease as the alkyl groups become larger. The t-butyl derivative (BQDtBEN) exhibited negligible fluorescence even in the presence of zinc ion. The fluorescence intensity of the zinc complex of the bisquinoline derivative (BQDMEN) is higher than that of TQEN (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-quinolylmethyl) ethylenediamine), indicating that the TQEN-Zn complex has an intramolecular quenching mechanism due to the energy transfer among four quinoline rings and the remaining photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism. Introduction of methoxy substituents into the quinoline ring shifted the excitation and emission wavelengths towards a lower-energy direction and increased the fluorescence intensity, which allows N,N'-bis(6-methoxy-2-quinolylmethyl)-N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine (6-MeOBQDMEN) to be used for cellular fluorescent microscopic analysis (lambda(ex) = 331 nm, lambda(em) = 406 nm and phi = 0.28 for 6-MeOBQDMEN-Zn complex)., ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2009, DALTON TRANSACTIONS, 21 (19), 3800 - 3806, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Combined influences of gradual changes in room temperature and light around dusk and dawn on circadian rhythms of core temperature, urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate and waking sensation just after rising

    Masayuki Kondo; Hiromi Tokura; Tomoko Wakamura; Ki-Ja Hyun; Satoshi Tamotsu; Takeshi Morita; Tadashi Oishi

    The present experiment aimed at knowing how a gradual changes of room temperature (T-a) and light in the evening and early morning could influence circadian rhythms of core temperature (T-core), skin temperatures, urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate and waking sensation just after rising in humans. Two kinds of room environment were provided for each participant: 1) Constant room temperature (T-a) of 27 degrees C over the 24 h and LD-rectangular light change with abrupt decreasing from 3,000 lx to100 lx at 1800,abrupt increasing from 0 lx to 3,000 lx at 0700. 2) Cyclic changes of Ta and with gradual decrease from 3,000 lx to 100 lx onset at 1700 (twilight period about 2 h), with gradual increasing from 0 lx to 3,000 lx onset at 0500 (about 2 h). Main results are summarized as follows: 1) Circadian rhythms of nadir in the core temperature (T-core) significantly advanced earlier under the influence of gradual changes of T-a and light than no gradual changes of T-a and light. 2) Nocturnal fall of T-core, and morning rise of T-a, were greater and quicker, respectively, under the influence of gradual changes of T-a and light than no gradual changes of T-a and light. 3) Urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate during nocturnal sleep was significantly greater under the influence of gradual changes of T-a and light. 4) Waking sensation just after rising was significantly better under the influence of gradual changes of T-a and light. We discussed these findings in terms of circadian and thermoregulatory physiology., COLLEGIUM ANTROPOLOGICUM, Jun. 2007, COLLEGIUM ANTROPOLOGICUM, 31 (2), 587 - 593, web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Physiological significance of cyclic changes in room temperature around dusk and dawn for circadian rhythms of core and skin temperature, urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate, and waking sensation just after rising

    Masayuki Kondo; Hiromi Tokura; Tomoko Wakamura; Ki-Ja Hyun; Satoshi Tamotsu; Takeshi Morita; Tadashi Oishi

    The present study investigated whether room temperature (Ta) cycles around dusk and dawn could influence the circadian rhythm of rectal temperature (Tcore), urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate during nocturnal sleep, and subjective assessments of sleep in humans. Six female and two male students served as participants. Two different Ta conditions, cyclic and constant, were established. Two kinds of room temperature were provided to subjects: cyclic Ta (gradual decrease from 27°C to 24°C between 1800 and 2200 h and gradual increase from 24°C to 27°C between 0300 and 0700 h) and constant Ta (27°C over 24 h). At cyclic Ta, the circadian nadir of Tcore rhythm was significantly advanced, while Tcore was significantly lower from 2300 to 0200h and significantly higher from 0600 to l000h. The nocturnal concentration of 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate in the urine during sleep was significantly higher during cyclic Ta. Waking sensation just after rising was significantly better with cyclic Ta. (Skin temperatures in the extremities - Ta) were significantly higher with cyclic T a especially during the evening and night. Our results suggest that gradual change of room temperature in the evening and early morning is important in terms of sleep promotion and fresh awakening. It seems probable that mankind has been evolved to have deeper sleep under the influence of cyclic T a around dusk and dawn., 2007, Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 26 (4), 429 - 436, doi;pubmed

    Scientific journal

  • Immunohistochemical characterization of a parapinopsin-containing photoreceptor cell involved in the ultraviolet/green discrimination in the pineal organ of the river lamprey Lethenteron japonicum

    Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Akihisa Terakita; Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Yoshinori Shichida; Tadashi Oishi; Satoshi Tamotsu

    In the pineal organ, two types of ganglion cell exhibit antagonistic chromatic responses to UV and green light, and achromatic responses to visible light. In this study, we histologically characterized UV-sensitive photoreceptor cells that contain a unique non-visual UV pigment, lamprey parapinopsin, in order to elucidate the neural network that is associated with antagonistic chromatic responses. These characteristics were compared with those of lamprey rhodopsin-containing cells, most of which are involved in achromatic responses. RT-PCR analysis revealed that lamprey parapinopsin was expressed in the pineal organ but not in the retina, unlike lamprey rhodopsin, which was expressed in both. Lamprey parapinopsin and lamprey rhodopsin were immunohistochemically localized in the dorsal and ventral regions of the pineal organ, respectively. The two pigments were localized in distinct photoreceptor cells throughout the pineal organ, namely the dorsal and ventral regions as well as the peripheral region, which corresponds to the dorso-ventral border region. The ratio of the number of lamprey parapinopsin-containing cells to lamprey rhodopsin-containing cells around the peripheral region was higher than in the central region. Electron-microscopic analysis revealed that lamprey parapinopsin-containing dorsal cells have outer segments and synaptic ribbons similar to those of ventral photoreceptor cells. However, unlike lamprey rhodopsin-containing cells, lamprey parapinopsin-containing cells connected with each other in a wide area of dorsal and peripheral portions and made direct contact with ganglion cells, mainly in the peripheral portion. These results suggest that UV light information captured by lamprey parapinopsin-containing photoreceptor cells is converged and directly transmitted to chromatic-type ganglion cells in the peripheral region to generate antagonistic chromatic responses., COMPANY OF BIOLOGISTS LTD, Nov. 2007, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 210 (21), 3821 - 3829, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Neural interaction of gonadotropin-regulating hormone immunoreactive neurons and the suprachiasmatic nucleus with the paraventricular organ in the Japanese grass lizard (Takydromus Tachydromoides)

    E Kawano; Y Takahata; T Oishi; K Ukena; K Tsutsui; S Tamotsu

    Our previous study demonstrated that the paraventricular organ (PVO) in the hypothalamus of the Japanese grass lizard (Takydromus tachydromoides) showed immunoreactivity against the light signal-transducing G-protein, transducin. This finding suggested that the PVO was a candidate for the deep-brain photoreceptor in this species. To understand functions of the PVO, we investigated distributions of transducin, serotonin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the lizard's brain. We immunohistochemically confirmed co-localization of transducin and serotonin in PVO neurons that showed structural characteristics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neurons. GnRH-immunoreactive (ir) cells were localized in the posterior commissure and lateral hypothalamic area. Some of the serotonin-ir fibers extending from the PVO to the lateral hypothalamic area contacted the GnRH-ir cell bodies. GnIH-ir cells were localized in the nucleus accumbens, paraventricular nucleus, and upper medulla, and GnIH-ir fibers from the paraventricular nucleus contacted the lateral processes of serotonin-ir neurons in the PVO. In addition, we found that serotonin-ir fibers from the PVO extended to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and the retrograde transport method confirmed the PVO projections to the SCN. These findings suggest that the PVO, by means of innervation mediated by serotonin, plays an important role in the regulation of pituitary function and the biological clock in the Japanese grass lizard., ZOOLOGICAL SOC JAPAN, Mar. 2006, ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 23 (3), 277 - 287, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Histological changes in immune and endocrine organs of quail embryos: Exposure to estrogen and nonylphenol

    Sultana Razia; Yukari Maegawa; Satoshi Tamotsu; Tadashi Oishi

    Effects of 17 beta-estradiol and p-nonylphenol were examined in the immune and endocrine organs of Japanese quail embryos. The test compounds were injected into the yolk of embryonated eggs. Injection of estrogen resulted in (1) disappearance of lymphoid cells and flattened development of plicae in the bursa of Fabricius, (2) decreased area of thyroid follicles and height of simple cuboidal epithelial cells in the thyroid, (3) increased follicular appearance of the thymus, and (4) development of an ovotestis in male embryos. Injection of nonylphenol did not induce flattened plicae in the bursa of Fabricius or development of an ovotestis in male embryos, but it increased the disappearance of lymphoid cells from the lymphoid follicles in the bursa, decreased the height of simple cuboidal epithelial cells surrounding the thyroid follicle, and increased the follicle-like structure in the thymus in male embryos. These results suggest that nonylphenol has estrogenic effects, but these are low compared to those of estrogen itself. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved., ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, Nov. 2006, ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, 65 (3), 364 - 371, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Methoxy-substituted TQEN family of fluorescent zinc sensors

    Yuji Mikata; Motoko Wakamatsu; Ayano Kawamura; Natsuko Yamanaka; Shigenobu Yano; Akira Odani; Kazuko Morihiro; Satoshi Tamotsu

    Two methoxy-substituted TQEN (N,N,N ',N '-tetrakis(2-quinolylmethyl) ethylenediamine) derivatives, T(MQ)EN(N,N,N ',N '-tetrakis(6-methoxy-2-quinolylmethyl)ethylenediamine) and T(TMQ)EN (N,N,N ',N '-tetrakis(5,6,7-trimethoxy-2-quinolylmethyl) ethylenediamine), have been prepared, and their fluorescence properties with respect to Zn2+ coordination were investigated. Introduction of a methoxy substituent at 6-position of the quinoline ring enhances the fluorescence intensity by 10-fold, and the three methoxy substituents in the 5,6,7-positions afford significant enhancement of the long-wavelength component of the fluorescence of zinc complex. The substituents did not alter the binding affinity of these compounds toward zinc ion significantly. T(MQ)EN was proved to be effective in detection of zinc ion in cells by fluorescent microscopy., AMER CHEMICAL SOC, Nov. 2006, INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, 45 (23), 9262 - 9268, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Allelopathic effects of volatile monoterpenoids produced by Salvia leucophylla: Inhibition of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis in the root apical meristem of Brassica campestris seedlings

    N Nishida; S Tamotsu; N Nagata; C Saito; A Sakai

    Salvia leucophylla, a shrub observed in coastal south California, produces several volatile monoterpenoids (camphor, 1,8-cincole, beta-pinene, a-pinene, and camphene) that potentially act as allelochemicals. The effects of these were examined using Brassica campestris as the test plant. Camphor, 1,9-cineole, and beta-pinene inhibited germination of B. campestris seeds at high concentrations, whereas a-pinene and camphene did not. Root growth was inhibited by all five monoterpenoids in a dose-dependent manner, but hypocotyl growth was largely unaffected. The monoterpenoids did not alter the sizes of matured cells in either hypocotyls or roots, indicating that cell expansion is relatively insensitive to these compounds. They did not decrease the mitotic index in the shoot apical region, but specifically lowered mitotic index in the root apical meristem. Moreover, morphological and biochemical analyses on the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine into DNA demonstrated that the monoterpenoids inhibit both cell-nuclear and organelle DNA synthesis in the root apical meristem. These results suggest that the monoterpenoids produced by S. leucophylla could interfere with the growth of other plants in its vicinity through inhibition of cell proliferation in the root apical meristem., SPRINGER, May 2005, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ECOLOGY, 31 (5), 1187 - 1203, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Changes in the distribution of tenascin and fibronectin in the mouse ovary during folliculogenesis, atresia, corpus luteum formation and luteolysis

    K Yasuda; E Hagiwara; A Takeuchi; C Mukai; C Matsui; A Sakai; S Tamotsu

    Tenascin and fibronectin are components of the extracellular matrices that oppose and promote adhesion, respectively. Using immunohistochemical techniques, we studied the distribution of tenascin and fibronectin in the mouse ovary, in which dynamic reconstruction and degeneration occur during folliculogenesis, atresia, ovulation, corpus luteum formation and luteolysis. In growing follicles, tenascin was only detected in the theca externa layer, while fibronectin was detected in the theca externa layer, theca interna layer and basement membrane. During follicular atresia, granulosa cells, which are surrounded by the basement membrane, began to die through apoptosis. In atretic follicles, tenascin was detected in the basement membrane and theca externa layer. Distribution of fibronectin in atretic follicles was similar to that in healthy growing follicles, except that granulosa cells were slightly immunopositive for fibronectin. In young corpus luteum, luteal cells exhibit high 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HSD) activity, an enzyme indispensable for progesterone production. Tenascin was barely detected in young luteal cells. 3 beta-HSD activity in luteal cells declines with corpus luteum age, and in older corpus luteum there is an increase in apoptotic death of luteal cells. Tenascin was intensely immunopositive in old luteal cells. In contrast, fibronectin immunostaining in luteal cells was relatively constant during corpus luteum formation and luteolysis. Our observations suggest that tenascin is critical in controlling the degenerative changes of tissues in mouse ovaries. Moreover, in all circumstances observed in this study, tenascin always co-localized with fibronectin, suggesting fibronectin is indispensable for the function of tenascin., ZOOLOGICAL SOC JAPAN, Feb. 2005, ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 22 (2), 237 - 245, web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Effects of estrogen (17_-estradiol) and p-nonylphenol on the development of immune organs in male Japanese quail.

    TAMOTSU Satoshi; Razia, S; Soda, K; Yasuda, K; Tamotsu, S; Oishi, T

    2005, Environ. Sci., 12, 99-110

  • Vitellogenin-immunohistochemistry in the liver and the testis of the Medaka, Oryzias latipes, exposed to 17 beta-estradiol and p-nonylphenol

    K Kobayashi; S Tamotsu; K Yasuda; T Oishi

    Vitellogenin (VTG) produced in male fish has been used for a biomarker to study endocrine disrupters. However, the characteristics of VTG produced in male fish have not been studied well. In this study, we investigated the localization of VTG in the liver and the testis of male medaka (Oryzias latipes) treated with 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and p-nonylphenol (NP). The male fish were exposed to 1 mu g/L E2 and 500 mu g/L NIP for 1-12 days. Control groups were kept in water including only vehicle. The frozen sections of the liver and the testis were stained with immunohistochemical methods using an antiserurn against medaka VTG as the first antibody. In the E2 and NP treated liver, the hepatocytes showed immunoreactivity. In particular, the cytoplasm close to the cell membrane surrounding the sinusoids was strongly immunopositive. In the testis of both treatments, the interstitial tissues and the cells (spermatocytes) in the seminiferous tubules were immunopositive. The concentration of VTG became gradually higher in both tissues with longer treatments. These results suggest that germ cells in the testis treated with E2 and NP are able to incorporate and accumulate VTG., ZOOLOGICAL SOC JAPAN, Apr. 2005, ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 22 (4), 453 - 461, web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Experiential effects of appetitive and nonappetitive Odors on feeding Behavior in the blowfly, Phormia regina: A putative role for tyramine in appetite regulation

    T Nisimura; A Seto; K Nakamura; M Miyama; T Nagao; S Tamotsu; R Yamaoka; M Ozaki

    In humans, appetite is affected by food experiences and food flavors. In the blowfly Phormia regina, we found that feeding threshold to sugar increased in the presence of the odor of D-limonene and decreased in the presence of the odor of dithiothreitol (DTT). Using these odors as representative nonappetitive and appetitive flavors, we demonstrated the role played by tyramine ( TA) in appetite regulation by experiences of food flavors. When fed with sucrose flavored with D-limonene for 5 d after emergence, flies showed subsequent decreased appetite to plain sucrose, whereas when they were fed with sucrose flavored by DTT they showed increased appetite. However, mushroom body (MB)-ablated flies did not show these patterns. This suggests that MB, one of the primary memory centers of the insect brain, is necessary for the flies to apply previous experiences of food flavors to appetitive learning behaviors. In addition, flies' previously acquired decreased or increased appetites showed parallel changes with both octopamine (OA) and tyramine levels in the brain. However, injection experiments with OA, TA, or their agonist and antagonist indicated that TA more directly mediates feeding threshold determination, which was affected by acquired memories of food flavors., SOC NEUROSCIENCE, Aug. 2005, JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, 25 (33), 7507 - 7516, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Effect of dim and bright light exposure on some immunological parameters measured under thermal neutral conditions

    KJ Hyun; M Kondo; T Koh; H Tokura; S Tamotsu; T Oishi

    This study assesses the effects of ambient light conditions, under a thermoneutral environment, on selected immunological parameters of 7 healthy young women (aged 19 to 22 yrs). Subjects entered the bioclimatic chamber at 1100 h, controlled at 26 degrees C and 60% relative humidity, a "neutral climate. They lead a well-regulated life in the climatic chamber ( pre -condition) while exposed to dim (200 lux) or, on the next day, bright (5000 lux) light between 0600 to 1200 h. Just before the end of each period of light exposure, a blood sample was taken for later immunological assay of white blood cell count (WBC), phagocytosis, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-4 (IL-4), CD69 T cells (CD69), CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells (CD4(+) CD25(+)), and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). The results, when compared with the pre -condition, were as follows: 1) CD69 and IFN-gamma increased during normal conditions without thermal stress under dim light; 2) WBC increased and IL-4 decreased under bright light; 3) as shown by the highly significant decrease of TGF-beta 1, the immune system was activated under bright light; 4) phagocytosis tended to increase under bright light exposure; 5) CD69 and IFN-gamma were significantly higher, and CD4(+)CD25(+) tended to decrease under bright light; 6) phagocytosis tended to be lower and TGF-beta 1 significantly higher under dim light, indicating a decline of immune system function. Taken together, this preliminary single time-point sampling study infers that some parameters are activated (CD69) while others are attenuated (phagocytosis, TGF-beta 1) according to the environmental light intensity, dim vs. bright , in women adhering to a standardized routine in the absence of thermal stress. These findings are discussed in terms of inhibition of the sympathetic and excitation of the parasympathetic nervous system under the influence of life-style regularity and daytime bright light exposure., TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2005, CHRONOBIOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, 22 (6), 1145 - 1155, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Photoperiodic response of serotonin- and galanin-immunoreactive neurons of the paraventricular organ and infundibular nucleus in Japanese quail, Coturnix cotumix japonica

    Y Haida; T Ubuka; K Ukena; K Tsutsui; T Oishi; S Tamotsu

    We investigated the photoperiodic response of serotonin- and galanin (GA)- immunoreactive (ir) cells in the paraventricular organ (PVO) and infundibular nucleus (IF) of the Japanese quail and the interaction of these cells with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-ir neurons in the hypothalamus. Serotonin-ir cells were located in series from the PVO to the IF, and were connected with each other. The number of serotonin-ir cells differed significantly between light and dark phases on the short days (SD), but did not differ between light and dark phases on long days (LD). GA-ir cells were also found in the PVO and IF. The number of GA-ir cells under SD conditions was significantly greater than under LD conditions but did not change diurnally. Both serotonin-ir and GA-ir fibers ran along the GnRH-ir cells in the nucleus commissurae pallii. Serotonin-ir and GA-ir fibers were connected with the GnRH-ir fibers in the external layer of the median eminence (ME). We confirmed that GA-ir fibers were closely associated with serotonin-ir neurons in the PVO and IF. GA-ir neurons have at least 2 routes of regulating GnRH neurons directly, and indirectly via the serotonin-ir cells in the PVO and IF., ZOOLOGICAL SOC JAPAN, May 2004, ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 21 (5), 575 - 582, web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Bistable UV pigment in the lamprey pineal

    M Koyanagi; E Kawano; Y Kinugawa; T Oishi; Y Shichida; S Tamotsu; A Terakita

    Lower vertebrates can detect UV light with the pineal complex independently of eyes. Electrophysiological studies, together with chromophore extraction analysis, have suggested that the underlying pigment in the lamprey pineal exhibits a bistable nature, that is, reversible photoreaction by UV and visible light, which is never achieved by known UV pigments. Here we addressed the molecular identification of the pineal UV receptor. Our results showed that the long-hypothesized pigment is a lamprey homologue of parapinopsin, which exhibits an absorption maximum at 370 nm, in the UV region. UV light causes cis-trans isomerization of its retinal(2) chromophore, forming a stable photoproduct having an absorption maximum at 515 nm, in the green region. The photoproduct reverts to the original pigment upon visible light absorption, showing photoregeneration of the pigment. In situ hybridization showed that parapinopsin is selectively expressed in the cells located in the dorsal region of the pineal organ. We successfully obtained the hyperpolarizing responses with a maximum sensitivity of approximate to380 nm from the photoreceptor cells at the dorsal region, in which the outer segment was clearly stained with anti-parapinopsin antibody. These results demonstrated that parapinopsin is the pineal UV pigment having photointerconvertible two stable states. The bistable nature of the parapinopsin can account for the photorecovery of the pineal UV sensitivity by background green light in the lamprey. Furthermore, we isolated the parapinopsin homologues from fish and frog pineal complexes that exhibit UV sensitivity, suggesting that parapinopsin is a common molecular basis for pineal UV reception in the vertebrate., NATL ACAD SCIENCES, Apr. 2004, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 101 (17), 6687 - 6691, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • In vivo activation of pro-form Bombyx cysteine protease (BCP) in silkmoth eggs: localization of yolk proteins and BCP, and acidification of yolk granules

    Y Yamahama; N Uto; S Tamotsu; T Miyata; Y Yamamoto; S Watabe; SY Takahashi

    The present study was designed to investigate the process of acidification of yolk granules during embryogenesis. In oocytes of mature Bombyx mori silkmoth, yolk proteins and a cysteine protease (pro-form BCP) were found in yolk granules. BCP was localized in small sized yolk granules (SYG, 3-6 mum in diameter) and yolk proteins in large sized granules (LYG, 6-11 mum in diameter), which might result in a spatial separation of protease and its substrates to avoid unnecessary hydrolysis. The granules were isolated on Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Although separation of LYG and SYG was incomplete, the granules sedimented in different fractions when using unfertilized egg extract, in which LYG was recovered from heavier fractions and BCP from lighter fractions. Acid phosphatase, as well as other lysosomal marker enzymes tested, was recovered from LYG-containing fractions. When extracts were prepared from developing eggs (day 3), some BCP-containing granules co-sedimented with LYG. The inactive pro-form BCP was activated in vivo, in parallel with yolk protein degradation, and as demonstrated previously in vitro under acidic conditions (Takahashi et al., 1993). These results suggest that acidification occurs in yolk granules during embryogenesis. This was also confirmed using acridine orange fluorescent dye. In early development, most yolk granules were neutral, but became acidic during embryonic development. SYG were progressively recovered in heavier density fractions, displaying acidic interior. In this fraction, BCP-containing granules seem to be associated with larger granules (6-11 mum in size). In addition, SYG (BCP containing granules) were likely to be acidified earlier than LYG. Our results suggest that acidification initiates yolk degradation through activation of pro-form BCP. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved., PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, Feb. 2003, JOURNAL OF INSECT PHYSIOLOGY, 49 (2), 131 - 140, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Repetitive activation of protein kinase A induces slow and persistent potentiation associated with synaptogenesis in cultured hippocampus

    K Tominaga-Yoshino; S Kondo; S Tamotsu; A Ogura

    Mammalian brain memory is hypothesized to be established through two phases; short-term plasticity, as exemplified by long-term potentiation (LTP) where pre-existing synapses change transmission efficiency, and long-lasting plasticity where new synapses are formed. This hypothesis, however, has not been verified experimentally. Using cultured hippocampal slices, we show that the repeated induction of late-phase LTP by brief applications of forskolin (FK) led to a slowly-developing long-lasting synaptogenesis, as judged from electrophysiological, cytological and ultrastructural indices. These indices include (1) field postsynaptic potential standardized by field action potential, which should represent the number of synapses per neuron; (2) the amounts of synaptic marker proteins; (3) the number of synaptophysin-immunopositive puncta; (4) the number of dendritic spines per length; (5) the density of synaptic ultrastructures; (6) ultrastructures similar to synapse perforation. Increment in these indices occurred similar to 10 days after FK-application and outlasted the following weeks. The increment depended on the times and intervals of FK-application. A biologically inert FK analogue failed to produce the similar effect. An inhibitor for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) blocked the synaptogenesis. The cultured brain slice repeatedly exposed to FK should serve as a good model system for the analysis of persistent synaptogenesis possibly related to long-term memory in mammalian CNS. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved., ELSEVIER SCI IRELAND LTD, Dec. 2002, NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, 44 (4), 357 - 367, web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • The non-visual opsins expressed in deep brain neurons projecting to the retina in lampreys.

    Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Seiji Wada; Tomoka Saito; Tomohiro Sugihara; Satoshi Tamotsu; Akihisa Terakita

    In lower vertebrates, brain photoreceptor cells express vertebrate-specific non-visual opsins. We previously revealed that a pineal-related organ-specific opsin, parapinopsin, is UV-sensitive and allows pineal wavelength discrimination in lampreys and teleost. The Australian pouched lamprey was recently reported as having two parapinopsin-related genes. We demonstrate that a parapinopsin-like opsin from the Japanese river lamprey exhibits different molecular properties and distribution than parapinopsin. This opsin activates Gi-type G protein in a mammalian cell culture assay in a light-dependent manner. Heterologous action spectroscopy revealed that the opsin forms a violet to blue-sensitive pigment. Interestingly, the opsin is co-localised with green-sensitive P-opsin in the cells of the M5 nucleus of Schober (M5NS) in the mesencephalon of the river and brook lamprey. Some opsins-containing cells of the river lamprey have cilia and others an axon projecting to the retina. The opsins of the brook lamprey are co-localised in the cilia of centrifugal neurons projecting to the retina, suggesting that cells expressing the parapinopsin-like opsin and P-opsin are sensitive to violet to green light. Moreover, we found neural connections between M5NS cells expressing the opsins and the retina. These findings suggest that the retinal activity might be modulated by brain photoreception., 15 Jun. 2020, Scientific reports, 10 (1), 9669 - 9669, True, doi;pubmed;pmc

    Scientific journal

  • Color opponency with a single kind of bistable opsin in the zebrafish pineal organ

    Wada Seiji; Shen Baoguo; Kawano-Yamashita Emi; Nagata Takashi; Hibi Masahiko; Tamotsu Satoshi; Koyanagi Mitsumasa; Terakita Akihisa

    30 Oct. 2018, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 115 (44), 11310 - 11315, doi;pubmed;web_of_science

  • C3-Like Photosynthetic Properties of Senescing Maize Leaves Are Accompanied by Preferential Senescence of Mesophyll Cells

    Saya Siogai; Satoshi Tamotsu; Atsushi Sakai

    Jun. 2018, Cytologia, 83 (4), 1 - 5

    Scientific journal

  • Synthesis of Rhenium(I) Tricarbonyl Complexes with Carbohydrate-Pendant Tridentate Ligands and Their Cellular Uptake

    Yuji Mikata; Kyoko Takahashi; Yuka Noguchi; Masami Naemura; Anna Ugai; Saori Itami; Keiko Yasuda; Satoshi Tamotsu; Takashi Matsuo; Tim Storr

    Twelve [ReIL(CO)(3)](n+) complexes with various carbohydrate-pendant ligands L have been prepared and their uptake into HeLa S3 cells were investigated. The ligand library includes: (i) glucose/galactose as the carbohydrate group; (ii) bis(2-pyridylmethyl) amine (DPA), bis(2-quinolylmethyl)amine (DQA), or N-(2-pyridylmethyl)glycine (NPG) as the metal binding component; and (iii) an ethylene chain as a linker between the metal binding site and the O/C-glycosides. Microwave induced plasma mass spectroscopy (MIP-MS) measurements revealed that all complexes were extensively incorporated into the HeLa cells over a 24 h period, and the DQA complexes showed the highest uptake of all the complexes in the series. However, in comparison to the corresponding Re complexes without the pendant carbohydrate functions (prepared with the related ligands LDPA, LDQA, and L-NPG), only the NPG complexes exhibited carbohydrate enhanced cellular uptake. Considering their water solubility and cellular uptake properties, the NPG complexes containing an O-glycoside group (L1 and L'1) are the best candidates for enhancing cellular uptake of metal ions. Microscopic analysis with PC-12 cells in the presence of the fluorescent complex [Re(L'7)(CO)(3)]Cl, revealed that the complex stays in the cell cytosol and cannot penetrate into the nucleus., WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, Jan. 2012, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, (2), 217 - 225, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Influences of Twilight on Diurnal Variation of Core Temperature, Its Nadir, and Urinary 6-Hydroxymelatonin Sulfate during Nocturnal Sleep and Morning Drowsiness

    Masayuki Kondo; Hiromi Tokura; Tomoko Wakamura; Ki-Ja Hyun; Satoshi Tamotsu; Takeshi Morita; Tadashi Oishi

    This study aimed at elucidating the physiological significance of dusk and dawn in the circadian rhythm of core temperature (T(core)) and urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate in humans during sleep and the waking sensation just after rising. Seven female and four male students served as participants. Participants retired at 2300 h and rose at 0700 h. They were requested to sit on a chair and spend time as quietly as possible during wakefulness, reading a book or listening to recorded light music. Two lighting conditions were provided for each participant: 1) Light-Dark (LD)-rectangular light change with abrupt decrease from 3,000 lx to 100 lx at 1800 h, abrupt increase from 0 lx to 3,000 lx at 0700 h. 2) LD-twi-light light change with gradual decrease from 3,000 lx to 100 lx starting at 1700 h (twilight period about 2 h), with gradual increase from 0 lx to 3,000 lx starting at 0500 h (twilight period about 2 h). The periods of 0 lx at night were from 2300 h to 0700 h on the first day and from 2300 to 0500 h on the second day. Nadir time advanced significantly under the influence of the LD-twilight condition. The amount of 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate in urine collected at 0200 h was significantly higher under LD-twilight in comparison with LD-rectangular light. Morning drowsiness tended to be lower under LD-twilight. Our results suggest that in architectural design of indoor illumination it is important to provide LD-twilight in the evening and early morning for sleep promotion in healthy normal people and/or light treatment in elderly patients with advanced dementia., COLLEGIUM ANTROPOLOGICUM, Mar. 2009, COLLEGIUM ANTROPOLOGICUM, 33 (1), 193 - 199, web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Effects of cGMP and cAMP on light responses of the photosensory pineal neurons in the lamprey, Lampetra japonica

    K Uchida; M Samejima; M Kawata; S Tamotsu; Y Morita

    We examined in this study how external cyclic nucleotides affect the light response mechanism of the pineal photoreceptors and explored the existence of parietal eye type of photoreceptor of which the internal cGMP concentration increased during the light response. Pineal organs of river lampreys, Lampetra japonica, were treated with 8-bromo guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8Br-cGMP) or 8-bromo adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8Br-cAMP) before light stimuli, and the light responses were recorded from the second order neurons, chromatic or achromatic-type neurons. Excitatory and inhibitory light responses of the chromatic-type neuron became obscure by 9 and 3 mM 8Br-cGMP without changing the spontaneous spike discharge in the dark. 8Br-cAMP (3 mM) increased the frequency of spontaneous spike discharge, though it did not inhibit the light responses themselves. The inhibitory light response of the achromatic-type neuron decreased after adding 3 mM 8Br-cGMP, and it was unchanged by 3 mM 8Br-cAMP. The spontaneous spike discharge of the neurons in the dark was not affected by the cyclic nucleotides, The mechanism of these results can be explained if cGMP is an intracellular second messenger of light responses in the pineal photoreceptors and the blocking effect on photoresponses by externally applied 8Br-cGMP is caused by compensating for the reduction in intracellular cGMP by light. However, it does not indicate that the parietal eye type of photoreceptor found in lizard participates in the chromatic and achromatic-type responses in the lamprey pineal organ. Copyright (C) 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel., KARGER, Nov. 2001, BIOLOGICAL SIGNALS AND RECEPTORS, 10 (6), 389 - 398, web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Light- and temperature-dependence of the melatonin secretion rhythm in the pineal organ of the lamprey, Lampetra japonica

    M Samejima; S Shavali; S Tamotsu; K Uchida; Y Morita; A Fukuda

    To identify the characteristics of the oscillator located in the pineal organ, we examined the effects of temperature and light on melatonin secretion rhythm using pineal organs in cultures. At 20 degreesC, the melatonin rhythm was obvious: low secretion during the daytime and high during the nighttime. When the temperature was lowered from 20 to 10 degreesC, the melatonin rhythm disappeared. When the temperature was returned from 10 to 20 degreesC, the rhythm quickly reappeared. The plasma melatonin level was measured in living lampreys kept at 7 degreesC to establish the melatonin profile at low temperature in vivo: secretion was not significantly different between daytime and nighttime, Under continuous light conditions, the melatonin elevation normally seen during the subjective night became obscure after 72 h. When the LD cycle was shifted by 6 h (phase-advanced or phase-delayed), the melatonin rhythm shifted to remain in the same phase relation to the LD cycle. This re-synchronization took several LD cycles. The results indicate that, in cultures, the melatonin secretion rhythm in the pineal organ of the lamprey is both light- and temperature-sensitive, and that in vivo, the melatonin rhythm is not the critical factor maintaining the locomotor activity rhythm of the lamprey, The role of the pineal organ and melatonin in the circadian organization of the lamprey is discussed., CENTER ACADEMIC PUBL JAPAN, Aug. 2000, JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY, 50 (4), 437 - 442, web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Immunocytochemical observations on pineal organ and retina of the Antarctic teleosts Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus bernacchii

    VB Meyer-Rochow; Y Morita; S Tamotsu

    In spite of the unique conditions they have to operate under, the pineal organs of Antarctic fishes have not previously been examined. We determined immunohistochemically that in the end-vesicles and the pineal stalks of Pagothenia borchgrevinki (a species found directly beneath the sea-ice) as well as Trematomus bernacchii (a species preferring somewhat deeper water than the former) at least two populations of physiologically-different cells occurred that displayed reactions indicative of typical vertebrate photoreceptors. Comparisons with immunocytochemically treated retinal sections from the eyes of the same two species showed that anti-opsin reactivity, characteristic of rods, was particularly strong in the lumina of the pineal stalks of both species. Anti-visinin reactions stained cones in the retinal sections of both fishes and occurred throughout the pineal organs, but in particular in the end vesicles of the pineals of both species. The difference in preferred habitat depth between the two species appears to have had very little influence on both retinal and pineal immunocytochemistry. It is concluded that the pineal organs of both species, at least during the austral summer, exhibit signs of being directly photo-sensitive., KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL, Feb. 1999, JOURNAL OF NEUROCYTOLOGY, 28 (2), 125 - 130, web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Internalization of urinary trypsin inhibitor in human uterine fibroblasts

    H Kobayashi; Y Hirashima; GW Sun; M Fujie; S Shibata; S Tamotsu; K Kato; H Morishita; T Terao

    We have characterized the molecular species and internalization of urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) in human uterine fibroblasts. Link protein (LP) has previously been identified as one of the cell-associated UTI binding proteins. The truncated forms of UTI were readily detectable in the cells after incubating the cells with purified UTI. Immunoblotting analysis with a panel of domain-specific antibodies revealed that the UTI species lacked the amino-terminal domain of UTI, but contained the carboxyl-terminal domain. We have examined whether LP is involved in the UTI internalization in the cells. Internalization of I-125-labelled UTI was blocked by the intact UTI, but not by the carboxyl-terminal domain of UTI. Treatment with a polyclonal antibody to the UTI binding domain of LP partially inhibited UTI binding to the cells? but did not significantly prevent UTI internalization. In addition, preincubation of the cells with hyaluronidase reduced the UTI binding to the cells, but had no effect on the rate with which UTI was internalized. These data allow us to conclude that there are at least two different mechanisms for internalization of UTI. The major one is via unknown UTI receptors in a Ca2+, Mg2+-sensitive manner and another is via LP., SPRINGER, Jun. 1998, PFLUGERS ARCHIV-EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY, 436 (1), 16 - 25, web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Identification and characterization of the cell-associated binding protein for urinary trypsin inhibitor

    H Kobayashi; Y Hirashima; GW Sun; M Fujie; K Shibata; S Tamotsu; K Miura; D Sugino; Y Tanaka; S Kondo; T Terao

    Urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) inhibits not only tumor cell invasion but also production of experimental and spontaneous metastasis. Cell-binding experiments indicated that human choriocarcinoma SMT-cc1 cells have specific binding sites for UTI on their cell surface. [Kobayashi et al., J. Biol. Chem. 269, 1994, 20642-20647]. UTI binding protein (UTIBP) was purified to homogeneity by a combination of UTI-coupled affinity beads, preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse phase HPLC. This protein is very similar to a truncated form of human cartilage link protein (LP). LP was identified structurally by its apparent molecular mass with and without deglycosylation treatment. Immunologically by the reactivity with anti-UTIBP antibody, and functionally by its ability to bind the NH(2)-terminal domain of UTI. UTI and UTIBP are distributed uniformly in the cytoplasm and/or over the cell surface of tumor cells and fibroblasts. The level of staining for hyaluronic acid, UTIBP and UTI is much lower in sections digested with hyaluronidase. These results suggest that the cell membrane-derived UTI-associated binding protein is the LP of proteoglycan-hyaluronic acid aggregates, which interacts with hyaluronic acid. Cell-associated LP may play a role in modulating protease activity to the environment close to tumor and fibroblast cell surface. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Apr. 1998, BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-PROTEIN STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR ENZYMOLOGY, 1383 (2), 253 - 268, web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Light-modulated subcellular localization of the alpha-subunit of CTP-binding protein Gq in crayfish photoreceptors

    A Terakita; H Takahama; S Tamotsu; T Suzuki; T Hariyama; Y Tsukahara

    Gq-type GTP-binding protein (Gq) plays an important role in invertebrate visual phototransduction. The subcellular localization of the alpha subunit of visual Gq in crayfish photoreceptor was investigated immunocytochemically and biochemically to demonstrate the details of the rhodopsin-Gq interaction. The localization of Gq(alpha) changed depending on the light condition. In the dark, Gq(alpha) was localized in the whole rhabdoms as the membrane-bound form. In the light, half of the Gq(alpha) was localized in the cytoplasm as the soluble form. The translocation of Gq(alpha) was reversible. The light-modulated translocation possibly controls the amount of Gq that can be activated by rhodopsin. In vitro hydroxylamine treatment of rhabdomeric membranes suggested that the translocation was regulated by the fatty-acid modification of Gq(alpha)., CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, May 1996, VISUAL NEUROSCIENCE, 13 (3), 539 - 547, web_of_science

    Scientific journal



    In the present study we investigated whether norepinephrine, which stimulates melatonin biosynthesis in the mammalian pineal organ, causes phosphorylation of the cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) in rat pinealocytes. Cells isolated from the pineal organ of adult male rats and cultured on coated coverslips were treated with norepinephrine, beta- or alpha(1)-adrenergic agonists for 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60 or 300 min and then immunocytochemically analyzed with an antibody against phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB). Treatment with norepinephrine or beta-adrenergic agonists resulted in a similar, time-dependent induction of p-CREB immunoreactivity, exclusively found in cell nuclei. The alpha(1)-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine did not induce p-CREB immunoreactivity at low doses (0.1 mu M) or when high doses (10 mu M) were applied in combination with a beta-antagonist (propranolol, 0.1 mu M). This indicates that induction of CREB phosphorylation is elicited by beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation. The response was first seen after 10 min and reached a maximum after 30 to 60 min when more than 90% of the cells displayed p-CREB immunoreactivity. The intensity of the p-CREB immunoreactivity showed marked cell-to-cell variation, but nearly all immunoreactive cells were identified as pinealocytes by double-labeling with an antibody against the S-antigen, a pinealocyte-specific marker. The results show that norepinephrine stimulation induces p-CREB immunoreactivity by acting upon beta-adrenergic receptors in virtually all rat pinealocytes. The findings support the notion that phosphorylation of CREB is a rather rapid and uniform response of pinealocytes to noradrenergic stimulation and thus is an important link between adrenoreceptor activation and subsequent gene expression in the rat pineal organ., SPRINGER VERLAG, Nov. 1995, CELL AND TISSUE RESEARCH, 282 (2), 219 - 226, web_of_science

    Scientific journal



    A clam, Ruditapes philippinarum responds to light by siphonal retraction and valve adduction. Sensitivity to light was seen widely diffused on the siphon, so attempts to identify possible photoreceptor cells were made in the distal portion of the siphon which is most sensitive. Histological investigations by light- and electron-microscopy revealed microvilli arising from the epithelial cells of the outer and inner surfaces of the siphon. Immunohistochemical experiments using anti-squid-rhodopsin serum in conjunction with FITC or streptavidin-biotin revealed specific binding of the anti-serum to the microvillar layer of the outer and inner epithelial cells. It is therefore suggested that the epithelial cells may contain a visual pigment in the microvilli and so function as a primitive photoreceptor., ZOOLOGICAL SOC JAPAN, Oct. 1994, ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 11 (5), 667 - 674, web_of_science

    Scientific journal



    The aim of this study has been to examine whether iodopsin immunoreaction exists in the photoreceptor cells of the retina of the river lamprey, Lampetra japonica, and whether this immunoreaction also appears in the photoreceptors of the pineal complex. The lamprey retina possesses long and short photoreceptor cells that display iodopsin immunoreactivity and rod-opsin immunoreactivity, respectively. In the pineal organ, iodopsin immunoreaction has been observed in the peripheral region and the dorsal wall of the end-vesicle. Immunoreactivity is also found in the atrium and the pineal stalk. The iodopsin-immunoreactive outer segments are smaller than those displaying rod-opsin immunoreactivity. In the parapineal organ, iodopsin immunoreactivity is distributed in both dorsal and ventral portions. Double immunostaining has been employed to investigate whether iodopsin and serotonin immunoreactivities are colocalized in one and the same cell. This approach has revealed that the iodopsin-immunoreactive outer segments belong to serotonin-immunopositive and to serotonin-immunonegative photoreceptor cells. These results demonstrate that rod-type or cone-type visual pigments are contained in both typical and modified pineal photoreceptors., SPRINGER, Oct. 1994, CELL AND TISSUE RESEARCH, 278 (1), 1 - 10, web_of_science

    Scientific journal



    SPRINGER, Mar. 1993, NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN, 80 (3), 137 - 139, web_of_science



    Photoreceptor cells, nerve cells and supporting cells were dissociated from the pineal organ of the river lamprey, Lampetra japonica, by the use of 10 U/ml papain solution at 28-degrees-C for 20 min, followed by repeated trituration. With the aid of Nomarski interference-contrast optics, photoreceptors cells, nerve cells and supporting cells were readily identified. Electron-microscopic examination revealed that isolated photoreceptor cells display an outer segment endowed with a few lamellar disks and connected to the inner segment (ellipsoid) via a connecting cilium. The structural features of the dissociated photoreceptor and supporting cells strongly resemble the morphology of the respective cellular elements in situ. We succeeded in culturing dissociated cells for time periods up to 48 h when the procedure described in detail was applied., SPRINGER, Mar. 1991, CELL AND TISSUE RESEARCH, 263 (3), 589 - 592, web_of_science

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    SPRINGER VERLAG, Nov. 1989, CELL AND TISSUE RESEARCH, 258 (2), 219 - 224, web_of_science

    Scientific journal



    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Feb. 1988, BRAIN RESEARCH, 442 (1), 147 - 151, web_of_science




    Scientific journal


  • 高輝度軟X線源を用いた軟X線顕微鏡による細胞内器官の高解像観察

    加道雅孝; 岸本牧; 保智己; 安田恵子; 青山雅人; 江島丈雄; 刀祢重信; 篠原邦夫; 篠原邦夫

    Mar. 2016, 大阪大学レーザーエネルギー学研究センター共同利用・共同研究成果報告書, 2015, 56 - 57, j_global;url

  • 高輝度軟X線源を用いた軟X線顕微鏡による細胞内器官の高解像観察

    加道雅孝; 岸本牧; 保智己; 安田恵子; 青山雅人; 江島丈雄; 篠原邦夫; 篠原邦夫

    Mar. 2015, 大阪大学レーザーエネルギー学研究センター共同利用・共同研究成果報告書, 2014, 70 - 71, j_global;url

  • Theca Cell Layer Formation in Mouse Ovarian Follicle Culture in vitro

    Saori Itami; Keiko Yasuda; Satoshi Tamotsu; Atsushi Sakai

    UNIV TOKYO CYTOLOGIA, Sep. 2012, CYTOLOGIA, 77 (3), 288 - 288, web_of_science

  • Actigraphによる妊娠末期から産後4カ月の母親の睡眠覚醒リズムの縦断研究

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    2008, 周産期医学, 38 (12), 1613-1617

  • 脳室の感覚器官:室傍器官 -室傍器官と下垂体との関係-

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    2006, 比較生理生化学会誌, 23 (3), 143-152

  • 3. (2005) ヤツメウナギにおける側眼と松果体の光受容細胞 (海洋出版)巻:

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    2005, 海洋, 41, 238-246

  • Circadian rhythms in amphibians and reptiles: Ecological implications

    T Oishi; K Nagai; Y Harada; M Naruse; M Ohtani; E Kawano; S Tamotsu

    Circadian rhythms of amphibians and reptiles in the field and under semi-natural conditions and the underlying mechanisms, including the ways of entrainment to environmental cues and the oscillators driving the rhythms, have been reviewed. Studies on the behavioral rhythms in the field are meager in both amphibians and reptiles. In anuran amphibians, Xenopus adults showed more robust nocturnal locomotor activity than did tadpoles. This indicates the ecological significance of the differences in activity pattern shown by amphibians at different life stages, because differences between adults and young in the same environment may serve to isolate partially the young from the adults' cannibalism. In reptiles, free-running rhythms are more robust and continue for a longer time compared to amphibians. In both amphibians and reptiles, multi-photoreceptors are involved in photo-entrainment of circadian rhythms. The eyes, pineal complex and deep brain comprise a multi-oscillator system as well as a multi-photoreceptor system., SWETS ZEITLINGER PUBLISHERS, Feb. 2004, BIOLOGICAL RHYTHM RESEARCH, 35 (1-2), 105 - 120, doi;web_of_science

  • 松果体の光感覚と紫外光受容

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    2004, 比較生理生化学雑誌, 21 (4), 185-194

  • Pineal photoreceptor and ganglion cells in river lamprey, Lampetra japonica -Two types of pineal ganglion cell- ´_x0002_

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    2002, J. Photoscience _x001E_, 9, 2:21-24

  • Double immunocytochemistry of serotonin and galanin in the hypothalamus of the Japanese quail. _x001E_

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    2002, J. Photoscience _x001E_, 9, 2:258-260

  • Deep brain photoreceptors and photoeriodism in vertebrates.

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    2002, J. Photoscience _x001E_, 9, 2:5-8

  • Multiphotoreceptor and multioscillator system in avian circadian organization

    T Oishi; M Yamao; C Kondo; Y Haida; A Masuda; S Tamotsu

    Photoperiodism and circadian rhythms have been studied intensively in birds because Aves are typical seasonal breeders and diurnal animals. Light is the most important environmental factor involved in entrainment of circadian rhythms and photoperiodism. The eyes and the extraocular photoreceptors, such as the pineal organ and hypothalamus, are reported to have an important function not only for photoreception but also for circadian organization in nonmammalian vertebrates, including birds. In this report, we review the roles of the eyes, pineal organ, and deep brain as the components of the multiphotoreceptor and multioscillator system in avian circadian organization. Microsc. Res. Tech. 53:43-47, 2001. (C) 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc., WILEY-BLACKWELL, Apr. 2001, MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE, 53 (1), 43 - 47, web_of_science

  • Three-dimensional reconstruction of serotonin-immunoreactive photoreceptors in the pineal organ of the river lamprey, Lampetra japonica

    S Tamotsu; M Samejima; N Suzuki; Y Morita

    Serotonin-immunoreactive (5-HT IR) photoreceptors are present in the pineal complex (pineal and parapineal organ) of the river lamprey, Lampetra japonica. They are so-called modified pineal photoreceptors and have been regarded as photo-neuroendocrine cells which secrete melatonin. We reconstructed 5-HT IR cells with a computer to demonstrate their three-dimensional structures from optical sections taken by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The 5-HT IR cell possesses a basal process, and it appears that the process does not branch out. These processes contact each other at the basal region of the end vesicle, and a process extends to the soma of the neighboring 5-HT IR cell. These findings were obtained by three-dimensional analysis with a computer, which is a useful technique to demonstrate the interaction between cells. We suggest that the 5-HT IR photoreceptors interact with one another., KARGER, Jul. 1997, BIOLOGICAL SIGNALS, 6 (4-6), 184 - 190, web_of_science

  • Melatonin excretion rhythms in the cultured pineal organ of the lamprey, Lampetra japonica

    M Samejima; S Tamotsu; K Uchida; Y Moriguchi; Y Morita

    Pineal organ of the lamprey, Lampetra japonica, is essential to keep the circadian locomotor activity rhythm as previously reported. In this paper, we tried to show that an endogenous oscillator is located and is working in the pineal organ. When the pineal organs were excised and cultured in a plastic tube with M199 medium at 20 degrees C, melatonin secretion rhythms were clearly observed under both light-dark and continuous dark conditions. The circadian secretion of melatonin continued for more than five cycles under the continuous dark condition. This indicates that the pineal organ has an endogenous oscillator and that the melatonin secretion rhythm is controlled by this oscillator. These findings suggest the possibility that the locomotor activity rhythm of the lamprey is under the control of the oscillator in the pineal organ., KARGER, Jul. 1997, BIOLOGICAL SIGNALS, 6 (4-6), 241 - 246, web_of_science

  • Three-dimensional imaging system. -Reconstruction of retinal ganglion cells and pineal photoreceptors by use of Voxel View.

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    1997, Advanced Medicine, 4 (6), 56

  • Analysis of analog data in electropysiological study by means of personal computer.

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    1997, Journal of the Physiological Society of Japan, 59 (10), 431



    JOHN LIBBEY & CO, 1994, ADVANCES IN PINEAL RESEARCH: 8, 8, 25 - 29, web_of_science

  • Immunocytochemical localization of serotonin and photoreceptor specific proteins in the pineal complex of the river lamprey, Lampetra japonica.

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    1991, Cell and Tissue Research, 262

  • Electrophysiological basis of photic entrainment in pineal activity. In : Advances in Pineal Research.

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    1991, John Libby Co. Ltd. , London, 6

  • Multiplicity of electrophysiological and immunocytochemical properties in pineal photosensory system. Advances in Pineal Research.

    TAMOTSU Satoshi





  • Intracellular response and input resistance change of pineal photoreceptors and ganglion cells

    Yukitomo Morita; Mitsuo Tabata; Satoshi Tamotsu

    1985, Neuroscience Research Supplements, 2 (C), S79 - S88, doi;pubmed

  • Photoreception in echinoderms.

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    1984, Photoreception and Vision in Iuvertebrates. ed. by M.A.Ali Plenum Press, New York, 743

Books etc

  • ヤツメウナギ 日本生理生化学会(編)「研究者が教える動物飼育 第3巻」

    TAMOTSU Satoshi (, Range: 筆頭著者)

    共立出版, 2012, 51-54

  • 「第3の眼」松果体 日本生理生化学会(編)「動物の多様な生き方1:見える光、見えない光-動物と光のかかわり」

    TAMOTSU Satoshi (, Range: 筆頭著者)

    共立出版, 2009, 134-153

  • Effects of 17 b-estradiol and p-nonylphenol on the gonads and papillary process formation in the medaka. _x0003_

    TAMOTSU Satoshi (, Range: 分担)

    In: Recent Advances in Comparative Endocrinology, (ed. by John Y-L. Yu), Academia Sinica, 2001, 402-411頁


  • ゼブラフィッシュ松果体の波長識別応答における光受容タンパク質パラピノプシンの分子特性の重要性

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    第88回日本動物学会, Sep. 2017, 富山

  • 広翅目ヘビトンボProtohermes grandis の幼虫期における走光性の特性

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    第88回日本動物学会, Sep. 2017, 富山

  • ヤツメウナギ松果体複合体における神経回路網

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    第88回日本動物学会, Sep. 2017, 富山

  • マウス卵巣の卵胞発育/卵胞閉鎖における腫瘍壊死因子α(TNFα)の機能

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    第88回日本動物学会, Sep. 2017, 富山

  • Floral scents and their dietary experience regulate feeding preference formation of a nectar-feeding insect

    TAMOTSU Satoshi; Miwako Tamotsu; Satoshi Tamotsu; Toru Maeda; Mamiko Ozaki

    the 22nd International congress of zoology, Nov. 2016, 沖縄

  • Neural profections and putative interaction between olfaction and taste inputs in the suboesophageal ganglion in the blowfly, Phormia regina

    TAMOTSU Satoshi; Toru Maeda; Satoshi Tamotsu; Tomoyosi Nisimura; Masaru K Hojo; Mamiko Ozaki

    the 22nd International congress of zoology, Nov. 2016

  • Comparative investigation of molecular basis of pineal wavelength discrimination in lower vertebrates

    TAMOTSU Satoshi; Seiji Wada; Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Satoshi Tamotsu; Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Akihisa Terakita

    the 22nd international congress of zoology, Nov. 2016

  • The characteristics of phototaxis and involvement of compound ocelli in the starfish, Asterias amurensis

    TAMOTSU Satoshi; Kanako Miyai; Hiroaki Sato; Satoshi Tamotsu

    the 87the meeting of zoological society of Japan, Nov. 2016

  • The characteristics of phototactic behavior in larval aquatic insects

    TAMOTSU Satoshi; Natsumi Nishino; Satoshi Tamotsu

    the 87th meeting of zoological society of Japan, Nov. 2016

  • 無顎類スナヤツメ幼生の遊泳活動リズム

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    第85回日本動物学会, Sep. 2014, 仙台

  • 円口類ヤツメウナギの脳深部に発現する非視覚オプシンの組織学的解析

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    第85回日本動物学会, Sep. 2014, 仙台

  • 無顎類スナヤツメにおける活動リズムへの光受容器官の影響

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    日本動物学会近畿支部研究発表会, May 2011, 京都

  • 深海性魚類ザラビクニンの網膜神経節細胞の分布と形態

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    日本動物学会近畿支部研究発表会, May 2011, 京都

  • ヤツメウナギ松果体の光感覚について

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    第11回光生物シンポジウム, Oct. 2010, 島根

  • マウス卵巣の卵胞発育過程で起こる莢膜細胞層形成機構の解明IV 生体内と培養系の比較

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    第81回日本動物大会, Sep. 2010, 東京

  • マウス卵巣の卵胞発育過程において腫瘍壊死因子α は顆粒膜細胞の増殖を促進する

    TAMOTSU Satoshi

    第81回日本動物大会, Sep. 2010

  • Observations of the intense soft x-ray emissions from ultrathin Au films irradiated with high contrast laser

    TAMOTSU Satoshi; Ishino, M; Kado, M; Nishikino, M; Shinohara, K; Tamotsu, S; Yasuda, K; Hasegawa, N; Kishimoto, M; Ohba, T; Kawachi, T

    SPIE-2010, Aug. 2010, San Diego, California, USA

  • ヤツメウナギ幼生に見られるphoto-kinesisへの松果体の役割

    坂井美咲; 熊田侑起; 山下(川野)絵美; 佐藤宏明; 保智己

    日本動物学会第90回大阪大会, 12 Sep. 2019

  • 無顎類ヤツメウナギの脳深部に存在する新規光受容器官の非視覚オプシンに着目した組織学的解析

    山下(川野)絵美; 由良南々帆; 小柳光正; 和田清二; 寺北明久; 保智己

    日本動物学会90回大阪大会, 12 Sep. 2019

  • 幼生期及び成体期のヤツメウナギにおける非視覚オプシンが発現する脳深部光受容器官の組織学的解析

    山下(川野)絵美; 保智己; 小柳光正; 和田清二; 寺北明久

    日本動物学会第89大会, 14 Sep. 2018

Teaching Experience

  • 神経・感覚生理論 (Nara Women's University)

Association Memberships

  • 日本動物学会

  • 日本比較生理生化学会

  • 日本生理学会


  • 高輝度軟X線源を用いた軟X線顕微鏡による細胞内器官の高解像観察

    Apr. 2014, Mar. - 2015

  • マウス精巣ライディッヒ細胞の顕微分光測光

    Apr. 2014, Mar. - 2015

  • 3D-可視化ソフト、DeltaViewer、の生物学分野への応用

    Apr. 2008, Mar. - 2009

  • 生体内亜鉛イオンセンサーの開発

    Apr. 2005

  • 軟X線顕微鏡による細胞内器官の可視化

    Apr. 2005

  • 深海性魚類の光受容器官の組織学的及び生理学的研究


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