Researchers Database


FacultyFaculty Division of Humanities and Social Sciences Research Group of History,Sociology and Geography
Last Updated :2024/04/11


Profile and Settings

  • Name (Japanese)

  • Name (Kana)



  • Doctor of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University

Research Interests

  • Urban Geography, Geographic Information Science, Quantitative Geography

Research Areas

  • Humanities & social sciences, Human geography
  • Humanities & social sciences, Geography

Research Experience

  • Apr. 2014, 奈良女子大学研究院人文科学系・教授
  • Apr. 2007, Mar. 2014, 奈良女子大学文学部・准教授
  • Apr. 2001, Mar. 2007, 奈良女子大学文学部・助教授
  • Oct. 1995, Mar. 2001, 東京都立大学理学部・助手


  • 1995, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Graduate School of Science, 地理学
  • 1989, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Science, 地理学

Association Memberships

  • 経済地理学会
  • 人文地理学会
  • 日本地理学会
  • 地理情報システム学会
  • 日本都市地理学会
  • 日本社会学会


Published Papers

  • Refereed, Geographical Review Of Japan, 日本地理学会 ; 2009-, Generalization of Central Place Theory in Hierarchical Structures Using Mathematical Programming, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 2015, 88, 4, 305-326, 326
  • Refereed, 地理学評論, 日本地理学会 ; 2009-, 数理計画法による中心地理論の体系化―単一財の立地について―, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 2014, 87, 2, 87-107, 107
  • Refereed, 建築雑誌, コンビニエンス・ストアの品揃えと立地, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 2001, 1470, 22-25
  • Refereed, 多摩ニュータウン研究, 多摩ニュ-タウン学会, 地理情報システムで描く多摩ニュータウンの居住環境, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 1998, 1, 1-12, 12
  • Refereed, Geographical Review of Japan, Series B, Spatial Competition and Marketing Strategy of Fast Food Chains in Tokyo, Kenji Ishizaki, 1995, 68, 1, 86, 93, Scientific journal, 10.4157/grj1984b.68.86
  • Refereed, Geographical Review of Japan, The Association of Japanese Geographers, A reinterpretation of Christaller's central place theory : from marketing principle to generalized maximal covering location problem, ISHIZAKI Kenji, Previous research efforts (Ishizaki, 1992) demonstrate that the marketing principle of Christaller's central place theory can be formulated as the set-covering problem. Results from this model applied to a hypothetical lattice network bring up the question of how to generate the hexagonal system of cen-tral places. Christaller required a set of six K-places, located at the median points between their neigh-boring B-places, to cover unsupplied areas about k-d units from B-places (Fig. 1). However, only three K'-places will entirely serve unsupplied areas (Fig. 2). Why are K-places located at the median points between B-places ?
    The primary purpose of this paper is to propose a reinterpretation for solving the above problem and reformulate the marketing principle using a location-allocation model. Furthermore, the relaxed models reflecting real assumptions are developed to expand the notions of the marketing principle. Last, relationships between the marketing principle with the relaxed models in this paper and well-known location-allocation models are discussed, in order to investigate the implications of the market-ing principle.
    Christaller's central place theory insures a continuous type of good and successively inclusive hier-archy. Satisfying these constraints, the supply of goods from a central place is represented as a bundle of outer limits of the range of goods at some central place (Fig. 3). Consider adding the loca-tion of the central place with a bundle of the outer limits of the range of goods. The most efficient location of central place K is at the center point between two B-places on a line (Fig. 4), which where
    aim=demand of node i for good m
    Zim=1 if node i is covered with good m
    Yjm=1 if node j serves good m
    pm=the number of supply points for good m
    wm=weight for good m
    M=the set of good m
    dy=distance from node i to j
    Rm=the outer limit of the range of good m
    Objective function (1) is to maximize weighted demand for good m. Constraint (2) allows Zim to equal 1 only when one or more supply points of good m are established at sites in the set Ni(Rm). The number of supply points of good m is restricted to equal pm in constraint (3). Constraints (4) and (5) insure successively inclusive relaxation: the former defines which supply points for some good q possess good r; the latter defines which demand points covered by some good s are likely to be suppl- ied good t.
    Consequently, the marketing principle and the relaxed models are summarized in Table 2 and in the linked well-known location-allocation models (Fig. 7). The relaxed models are based upon the max- imal covering location problem (MCLP), which is useful for public facility location planning (especial- ly emergency medical services). GMMP has all the characteristics of maximal covering extensions. Therefore, GMMP expanded from the marketing principle is defined as the generalized maximal covering location problem integrating MCLP and its extensions. This definition may make the marketing principle interpretable as the basis of various contemporary public facility location models., 1995, 68A, 9, 579-602, 602, 10.4157/grj1984a.68.9_579
  • Refereed, The Human Geography, 人文地理学会 ; 京都, Location-allocation models and their development, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 1994, 46, 6, 604-627, 627
  • Refereed, Comprehensive urban studies, 東京都立大学都市研究センター, MDPREFによる都市公園の選好分析, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 本稿は、東京区部とその周辺に位置する親水性の8公園(井の頭恩賜公園、水元公園、有栖川宮記念公園、葛西臨海公園、上野恩賜公園、日比谷公園、浮間公園、和田堀公園)を対象とし、都市公園の選好構造を解明しようとした。175人の大学生・院生に対し、1公園につき1セット4枚の写真からなる合計8セットの写真を呈示し、8公園の選好順位データをえた。この175人 x 8公園の選好順位行列に対しMDPREF(選好データを分析するためのベクトル・モデル型ノンメトリックMDS)を適用し、2次元のジョイント空間を求めた。葛西臨海公園と上野恩賜公園が正の大きな値をとり、有栖川宮記念公園と和田堀公園が負の大きな値をとるジョイント空間の第1軸は、「調和がとれた自然環境」を表わす選好次元、同じく日比谷公園と上野恩賜公園が正の大きな値をとり、水元公園が負の大きな値をとるジョイント空間の第2軸は、「開放性」を表わす選好次元と解釈された。選好の個人差は、この二つの軸に対する各人の重みづけの違いによって生じているのである。This paper is concerned with a preference analysis of eight city parks with waterside landscape in and around Tokyo City (Fig.2). Eight sets of photographs,each of which consists of four landscape scenes for one park(see Appendix 2),were presented to 175 undergraduate and graduate students as the sample. Then they were asked to see the photographs to rank the parks in term of their preference. A preference ranking data-matrix thus obtained serves as the input for MDPREF (Chang and Carroll, 1968),a non-metric MDS algorithm applied to preference data,to represent the preference structure in a two一dimensional joint space. Interpreting the recovered joint space (Fig.3),based on external information or individual respondents' reasons for their evaluations,leads to a conclusion that the two dimensions of "harmonious natural environment" and "openness" underlie the respondents' preference judgements of city parks: for the former dimension,Arisugawanomiya Memorial Park and Wadabori Park are highly evaluated and Kasai Seaside Park and Ueno Park low evaluated; for the latter dimension,Mizumoto Park is highly evaluated and Hibiya Park and Ueno Park low evaluated. Inokashira Park and Ukima Park,in a sense,appear to lack distinguishing features since they are ambiguously evaluated for the both dimensions. These results suggest that the parks covered with green and/or those full of an open atmosphere are preferred while the parks impressing respondents artificially are less preferred., Sep. 1993, 49, 47-66, 66
  • Refereed, Geographical review of Japan, Series B., The Association of Japanese Geographers, 立地-配分モデルによるクリスタラー中心地理論の定式化の試み, ISHIZAKI Kenji, This paper reconstructs the marketing principle of Christaller's central place theory using the location-allocation model. According to the marketing principle, the system of central places is constructed in terms of the upper limit of the range by satisfying the following constraints :
    (a) All consumers must be supplied with all goods from central places.
    (b) The central places at a higher-level offer not only same order goods but also all the other goods of a lower-level (i. e., successively inclusive).
    In this way, Christaller's requirement organizes the system of central places which is based upon the condition of a minimum number of central places (Saey, 1973). Therefore, the marketing principle is formulated as the set-covering problem which minimizes the number of central places required to satisfy the demand for coverage subject to the maximum distance constraint. The model can be represented as a hierarchical programming (Daskin and Stern, 1981),
    miniZm=WΣxjmj+ΣjSim (1)
    subject to
    Σjaijmxjm-Sim=1 (2)
    xjm-xj(m-1)_??_0 (m=2, ……, L) (3)
    Sim_??_0 (4)
    where dij=the distance from demand node i to potential center site j; Rm=the range of good m, W=a very large positive weight;aijm=1 if the distance from i to j is less than or equal to Rm, 0 otherise; xjm=1 if good m is offered from node j, 0 otherwise; Sim=number of additional central places capable of serving node i with good m.
    The objective function (1) has two hierarchical objectives : the primary objective is to minimize the number of central places; the secondary objective is to minimize the extent of market overlap. Constraints (2) and (4) define the above constraint (a) in Christaller's theory. Constraint (3) insures that the hierarchy is successively inclusive (i. e., the above constraint (b)).
    The model is applied to a hypothetical lattice network (Fig. 5) which is composed of two parts : an inner network where the entry of central places is possible and all nodes must be served from central places; and an outer network where nodes are not potential center sites but demand nodes that do not have, to covered with all goods. To build the hierarchy, both the top-down method and the bottom-up method (Fig. 3) are applied. Results are summarized as follows :
    (1) As can be seen in Fig. 8 and Table 3, the system of central places generated by the bottom-up method is that of the K =3 system developed by Christaller. The solution result using the top-down method (Fig. 7 and Table 2), however, clearly does not fit Christaller's K =3 system. The system generated by the latter method reveals a complicated configuration of central places and has a number of hierarchical levels.
    (2) As compared with the result by the top-down method, we notice that the system built using the bottom-up method is characterized by a concentration of functions (Fig. 9) and, therefore, shows efficient hierarchical organization.
    Consequently, the above model is valid only if it is constructed by the bottom-up method. In order to generate the K=3 system by the top-down method, it is necessary to reinterpret Christaller's objective function., Oct. 1992, 65A, 10, 747-768, 768
  • Refereed, Annals of the Japan Association of Economic Geographers, The Japan Association of Economic Geography, The geographical development of fast food stores in Tokyo city area from the viewpoint of locational policy, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 1990, 36, 2, 129-140, 140, 10.20592/jaeg.36.2_129


  • Not Refereed, 59, 9, 16
  • Not Refereed, 理論地理学ノート, 都市間結合を考慮した中心地モデルの定式化, ISHIZAKI Kenji, Jul. 2017, 19, 99-104
  • Not Refereed, 理論地理学ノート, A multiobjective location-allocation model for Christaller’s administrative principle, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 2016, 18, 21-26
  • Not Refereed, Geographical Reports of Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Geography, Tokyo Metropolitan University, A multiobjective maximal covering location problem incorporating inter-city traffic network, ISHIZAKI Kenji, Location-allocation models provide a valuable tool for operationalizing the central place theory. This paper attempts to integrate the marketing principle and the traffic principle in Christaller's central place theory using multiobjective model. The model is formulated with two objectives: (a) minimize the total population uncovered by each service, and (b) minimize the total cost of constructing arcs between centers. Some computational results indicate that the model is possible to derive the flexible system of central place hierarchy., 2015, 50, 50, 37-44, 44
  • Not Refereed, 奈良女子大学地理学・地域環境学研究報告, 地図変換技法の代替的アプローチに関する一考察, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 2010, 7, 49-64
  • Not Refereed, 古代学, 奈良女子大学, 明治前期の奈良盆地における中心地の階層構造-GIS・数理モデルによる立地分析-, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 2009, 1, 1, 69-75, 75
  • Not Refereed, 情報処理学会研究報告, 明治期の奈良盆地における集落の中心性について, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 2009, 2009-CH-83, 189-203
  • Not Refereed, 理論地理学ノート, 2種の点分布間における空間的適合に関する一考察, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 2006, 15, 1-12
  • Not Refereed, 地理月報, 商業施設の立地, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 2005, 485, 1-4
  • Not Refereed, 地理, 古今書院, 福祉政策-公共施設の立地・配分モデル, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 2001, 46, 3, 42-45, 45
  • Not Refereed, 地理, 古今書院, よりよい主題図を作成するために, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 1999, 44, 12, 36-46, 45
  • Not Refereed, Comprehensive urban studies, 東京都立大学都市研究センター, 多摩ニュータウン内における住宅地移動-多摩市の事例-, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 本稿では、多摩ニュータウン内での住宅地移動の実態について、多摩市でのアンケート調査に基づき報告した。明らかになった点は以下のとおりである。(1)転居の背景には、前住地における住宅状況に対する不満がある。(2)多摩ニュータウンが現在も建設途上にあり、前住地付近でも新しい住宅物件が供給され続けていることもあって、新居は前住地からあまり遠くない範囲で探されている。(3)対象世帯の世帯主が持ち家を指向する40-50歳代に集中しているため、持ち家間移動が借家・賃貸住宅から持ち家への移動を上回っている。(4)新居の選定に当っては、妻の意見が反映される場合が多く、主な選択基準は住宅状況であり、利便性、快適性が副次的に考慮される場合もある。This paper reports on intra-urban migration in Tama New Town, Tokyo Prefecture, based on questionnairing in Tama City. The questionnairing was conducted on 109 households who had changed their residences within Tama City from 1990 through 1995. The results are summarized as follows: the decision to move is related with dissatisfaction with housing conditions of their former residences; movers could search for the new residences in the area not so distant from their former residences because newly constructed houses continue to be supplied near their former residences in Tama New Town being still in the building; moves between the owner - occupied houses exceed those between the owneroccupied house and the rented house since many householders are in their forties and fifties who incline to own their houses; wife's will is likely to be more esteemed in choosing the new residence, and many movers regard housing conditions as the principal choosing criterion while some take into account accessibility and amenity, too., 1999, 70, 5-15, 15
  • Not Refereed, Notes on Theoretical Geography, GIS approach to evaluation of livign environment in Tama new town, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 1998, 11, 31-52
  • Not Refereed, Comprehensive urban studies, 東京都立大学都市研究センター, 店舗特性・立地特性からみた世田谷区におけるコンビニエンス・ストアの立地分析, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 本稿では、世田谷区におけるコンビニエンス・ストアの立地を対象として、現地調査に基づく品揃えのデータから抽出した店舗特性と、地理情報システムを用いて把握した店舗の立地特性について分析し、両者の関係を考察した。その結果、1)店舗数がほぼ飽和状態にある対象地域では、とくに上位チェーン企業による店舗の空間的競合が生じていること、2)各企業によって種々の店舗特性の構成に差異がみられ、他企業とは明確な差別化を図っていること、3)それらの店舗を多様な立地特性に対して集中的あるいは分散的に立地させることによって、コンビニエンス・ストア企業は需要および企業開の競合を見据えた戦略・立地適応を図っていること、などが明らかになった。The purpose of this paper is to verify the relationships between store merchandising and locational characteristics in convenience stores. It appears that the distribution of stores in Setagaya ward of this study area is saturated as regards the number of stores and the spatial competitions are intensive through regression analysis between night-time/ day-time populations and the number of convenience stores in Tokyo 23 wards. The stores are classified into seven types of store merchandising and into five types of locational characteristics, applying factor analysis and cluster analysis to the data of individual store's goods from field survey and the measured demand data from trade area analysis using geographic information systems. Consequently, each convenience store firm possesses a specific type of store merchandising for particular market segmentation and adopts a various target market selections according to its marketing ability., 1998, 65, 45-67, 67
  • Not Refereed, Comprehensive urban studies, 東京都立大学都市研究センター, 都市公園に対する知覚と選好の関係について-PREFMAPによる分析-, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 本稿は、東京区部とその周辺に位置する8公園(井の頭恩賜公園、水元公園、有栖川宮記念公園、葛西臨海公園、上野恩賜公園、日比谷公園、浮間公園、和田堀公園)を対象にして、都市公園に対する知覚と選好の関係を明らかにしようとした。そのために、8公園の風景写真を121名の大学生被験者に呈示し、知覚データと選好データを入手した。まず知覚データをKYST-2Aで分析し、それぞれ、「自然の環境が生み出す安らぎ感」、「都市公園の知覚された広さ」と命名される軸からなる2次元の知覚空間を求めた。そして、それを刺激空間座標として、選好との関係をPREFMAP(ベクトル・モデル型)で分析したところ、都市公園に対する知覚(公園の類似性判断)と選好(公園の噌好判断)の間には強い対応関係があることが判明した。The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the relationship between perception and perference for urban parks, taking as an example eight parks in and around Tokyo City. The perceptual and preference data on personal judgements of park-landscape scenes were collected through a questionnaire survey of a total of 121 undergraduate students. In order to get a stimulus configuration for an input to PREFMAP, a two-dimensional solution was sought by a non-metric MDS analysis of the perceptual data in terms of park similarity; the two dimensions were interpreted as the relaxed air produced by nature-environment and the perceived extent of urban parks, respectively (Fig.3) . A PREFMAP analysis -phase IV analysis or vector model- using this stimulus configuration revealed that perception of urban parks. that is to distinguish between them, was closely related to their preference judgement., 1994, 53, 57-70, 70
  • Not Refereed, 地理, 古今書院, 開発の波に揺れる秋留台, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 1993, 38, 9, 110-117, 117

Books etc

  • 978-4-7722-6130-2
  • 978-4780312133
  • 人文地理学事典, 丸善出版, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 分担, Sep. 2013, 206-207, Not Refereed
  • 歴史GISの地平-景観・環境・地域構造の復原に向けて, 勉誠出版, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 分担, Mar. 2012, 159-170, Not Refereed
  • 大学的奈良ガイド-こだわりの歩き方, 昭和堂, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 分担, Apr. 2009, 23-37, Not Refereed
  • 地理学の声, 古今書院, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 分担, Nov. 2008, 28-52, Not Refereed
  • 18・19世紀の人口変動と地域・村・家族, 古今書院, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 分担, Mar. 2008, 66-88, Not Refereed
  • 地理空間分析, 朝倉書店, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 分担, Sep. 2003, 61-83, Not Refereed
  • 立地論入門, 古今書院, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 分担, Apr. 2002, 130-138, Not Refereed
  • GIS-地理学への貢献, 古今書院, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 分担, Feb. 2001, 216-228, Not Refereed
  • 都市をとらえる-地理情報システム(GIS)の現在と未来-, 東京都立大学都市研究所, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 分担, Mar. 1996, 173-211, Not Refereed
  • 都市の環境創造-環境と対話する都市, 東京都立大学都市研究所, ISHIZAKI Kenji, 分担, Mar. 1995, 221-255, Not Refereed


  • 日本地理学会研究奨励賞, 1996

Research Projects

  • Apr. 2017, Mar. 2022, 17K03247, Principal investigator
  • 地理情報システムや数理モデルを用いた地理空間分析, 0, 0, 0, Competitive research funding
  • Spatial Analysis using GIS and Mathematical Modelling, 0, 0, 0, Competitive research funding
  • Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), 01 Apr. 2017, 31 Mar. 2022, 17K03247, Mathematical urban systems modeling and analysis using the complex network framework, Ishizaki Kenji, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Nara Women's University, 4420000, 3400000, 1020000, We have developed an algorithm for a network growth model that takes into account the spatial arrangement of cities. The model was tested on hypothetical spatial arrangements, from regular lattice assumed in central place theory to random arrangement. Furthermore, the model was applied to the hierarchical structure and distribution of Japanese cities restored from past literature and data. As a result of applying the model to numerical examples and real-world data, the conditions of spatial arrangement and hierarchical structure in which properties of small-world network and scale-free network appear have been clarified to some extent. Finally, in order to verify the network properties of current urban system in Japan, the inter-urban linkages measured from business-to-business transaction data were examined. The results represented a markedly scale-free network structure concentrated in Tokyo., kaken
  • Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), 2007, 2008, 19520682, A Study on Building Process of Losch's Location Theory of Settlement and Its Influence on the National Land Planning Theory of Nazi Germany, SUGIURA Yoshio; HARAYAMA Michiko; ISHIZAKI Kenji, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 4680000, 3600000, 1080000, Loschがオリジナルな集落立地論を体系的に論じた1940年のテクストを精読するとともに、彼の集落立地論を立地・配分モデルによって定式化し、ハイデンハイム周辺の集落分布をLoschモデルがいかに説明しうるかについて検討した。その結果、テクストの冒頭の記述が示唆するように、彼の故郷シュヴァーベンの集落分布の有様が彼の集落立地論の根底をなすことが分かった。また、彼の集落立地論の当時のドイツ国土計画論への影響を引用実態に基づいて考察したが、Christaller(1933)の中心地理論ほどの影響はみられなかった, kaken
  • Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), 2005, 2006, 17520544, A Study on the Application of Central Place Theory to the Occupied Area of East, Poland by Nazi Germany., SUGIURA Yoshio; HARAYAMA Michiko; ISHIZAKI Kenji, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 3700000, 3700000, 1. Before 1937 when Nazi Germany occupied Poland, Upper Shlesia branch of the Reich Association for Area Research had drawn up a plan to reorganize central place networks crossing the border and covering even Polish territories. The central places were planned as the strategic stronghold keeping Polish and other races under German control. 2. It was not easy that central place theory was accepted by Nazi Germany as the settlement location model for the planning framework to reorganize settlements in the occupied area of East, Poland. In 1938 the study group on central places chaired by Christaller was founded in the Reich Association for Area Research, where the applicability of central place theory was discussed to the settlement relocation planning in the future occupied area of East. Of group members, leading disputants were Gottfried Feder who could publish Neue Stadt in no time, economist Friedrich Biilow, and geographer Walter Geisler: Feder seemed to support central place theory; Biilow criticized the theory since it was incompatible with Nazism in that it was constructed positing the liberalistic economy; Geisler disagreed with Christaller who had deduced the hexagonal structure of settlements on uniform space. To these criticisms, as a result Christaller proposed mixed central place theory while changing the tone of argument into pro-Nazism in the papers published in the latter half of 1930s through the first half of 1940s. 3. Actually there was an exemplar as a model for applying central place theory to the occupied area of East, Poland. It was the application to the planning to locate settlements in the IJsselmeerpolders, which was undertaken by technocrats concerned with national land planning in the Netherlands in the 1930s through 1940s. Making good use of their experience which they had accumulated in the occupied area of West, the Netherlands, Nazi Germany intended to plan the settlement relocation in the occupied area of East., kaken
  • Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), 2003, 2004, 15520504, A Study on the Application of Central Place Theory to National Land Planning of Nazi Germany, SUGIURA Yoshio; HARAYAMA Michiko; ISHIZAKI Kenji, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 3600000, 3600000, 1. The main motivation of Nazi Germany to apply central place theory to national land planning is due to Konrad Meyer's attention to the theory, who was a professor of agriculture in Berlin University and also the chief of the Reich Association for Area Research. In addition to it, after having finished his Ph. D. dissertation, Christaller got to be connected with volkisch geographers like Friedrich Metz in Freiburg University, and through this channel he was also gradually involved in area planning. 2. In Nazi Germany, national land planners pursued a hierarchically structured country not only to solve an imbalance of population distribution, but also to acquire raw materials and to supply food efficiently. Christaller's extended thesis on settlement system which had been presented at the 1938 IGC in Amsterdam met their needs in that his thesis took into account as that system element reclaimed settlement and industrial settlement as well as central place. 3. Although after Nazi German occupation of Poland in September, 1939, central place theory was going to be applied to spatial planning to reorganize settlements in the eastern occupied areas, the literature in Polish suggests that in advance of it, by the request of the Reich Association for Area Research geographers in Breslau University made a plan in 1937 to construct a central place network in terms of border defenses in Silesia bordered by Poland. 4. Because only citation analysis of relevant literature could not closely capture influences of central place theory upon plans on settlement arrangement proposed by other disciplines, a literature reading work in detail is indispensable in other disciplinary fields. 5. An investigation of Christaller's papers written in 1940s will reveal the process that after 1939 Nazi Germany had actually applied central place theory in occupied Poland., kaken
  • 若手研究(B), 2002, 2003, 14780046, RS・GISを用いた奈良における犯罪分布の空間分析に関する研究, 石崎 研二, 日本学術振興会, 科学研究費助成事業, 奈良女子大学, 3200000, 3200000, 今年度の研究実績は以下の通りである. 1)平成5年〜平成14年の10年分の奈良新聞に基づいた犯罪に関する記事のデータベース化を完了し,記事内容から犯罪発生地点の空間情報をGIS上でデータベース化した.その結果,町丁目単位で犯罪分布を把握することが可能となった. 3)犯罪発生のひとつの環境要因として夜間の地表状態を把握するため,1991年および2001年時点の奈良市を中心とする人工衛星データ(LANDSAT TMおよびETM)を購入し,GIS上で画像データの表示・画像補正・解析を行ない,土地被覆,夜間の光度分布を客観的に把握した. 4)犯罪分布の空間分析を行なうためにGISソフトウェアArcGISを購入し,犯罪発生場所の空間的な特徴を客観的に把握しArcGISの平滑化ツールを用いて空間データから全体的・局所的な分布を把握した. 5)犯罪分布に関するデータと住民の社会経済的属性および土地利用データ・衛星画像による環境特性に関するデータを重ね合わせ,それらの対応関係について統計的分析を試みた.その結果,全体的な犯罪分布と住民属性との対応関係,局所的な犯罪多発地域と環境特性との対応関係がある程度認められた.なお,分析結果の解釈に必要な資料・文献収集を実施した. 6)データベース化および分析作業にかなりの時間を労したため,予定していた住民・自治体・警察などへの聞き取り調査が不十分であったが,アルバイトを用いて作業結果をまとめており,環境犯罪学へのRS・GIS研究からのアプローチと今後の施策のあり方などについて継続的に整理する所存である., kaken
  • 奨励研究(A), 1999, 2000, 11780069, RS・GISを用いた多摩ニュータウンにおける夜間の居住環境評価, 石崎 研二, 日本学術振興会, 科学研究費助成事業, 東京都立大学, 2400000, 2400000, 本研究では,リモート・センシング(RS)および地理情報システム(GIS)を用いて,多摩ニュータウンにおける夜間の居住環境評価を試みるものである.RSによる衛星画像解析,GISによる空間データ解析の結果,以下のようなことが明らかになった. (1)対象地域における街路灯などの照明装置の分布,犯罪防止の掲示物の分布について現地調査を行ない,収集したデータをベクター型GISに空間データとして入力した.また,「数値地図2500」および「細密数値情報10mメッシュ土地利用」を用いて,対象地域内の土地利用構成をGIS上に取り込んだ.その結果,対象地域の中でも初期に開発された諏訪・永山地区では,街路樹の成長に伴って街路灯が遮られ夜間照明が十分ではないこと,公園などのオープンスペースでは夜間に暗闇が多く創出され,犯罪防止の掲示物もそうした暗闇が創出される場所によく見受けられこと,などが分かった. (2)LANDSAT TMによる観測波長帯のうち遠赤外線の波長帯であるBAND6のデータを用いて,RSによる衛星画像解析を行なった.解析結果に基づく対象地域内の光度分布と,(1)で得た空間データとの重ね合わせ分析の結果,光度分布と照明装置・犯罪防止の掲示物の分布との間には,ある程度の対応関係が認められた.すなわち,夜間の居住環境における暗闇の創出は,対象地域内における土地利用や照明装置のインフラストラクチャーなどの物的環境に起因していることが理解された. (3)ただし,夜間の居住環境に関する住民の意識調査については,満足しうるアンケート調査が実施困難であったため,調査結果が得られなかった.今後は,(1)および(2)で得た客観的な居住環境評価と住民の主観的な居住環境評価とを合わせた分析が必要と考えられる., kaken
  • 奨励研究(A), 1997, 1998, 09780125, 数理モデルによる線形中心地システムの空間分析に関する研究, 石崎 研二, 日本学術振興会, 科学研究費助成事業, 東京都立大学, 2500000, 2500000, 本研究は,海岸線や河川沿いに細長い平野部が存する地域などで,1次元上(線形)に展開する中心地システムを理論的・実証的に検証するものである.平成9年度につづき,線形中心地システムの理論的な分析として,立地ー配分モデルを用いた中心地理論のモデル化と仮想地域における数値実験を行なった.さらに,研究対象地域である福島県太平洋岸のJR常磐線沿線に赴き,資料の収集と現地調査を実施した.その結果,以下の知見が得られた. 1. 福島県太平洋岸の中心地システムについて,商業統計に基づくデータを収集・データベース化し,因子分析による都市的集落の階層抽出を試みた.その結果,対象地域における都市的集落は,ほぼ3つの階層に分類することが可能であり,Parr(1978)による一般階層モデルの適用の結果,上位中心地が2つの下位中心地を包摂する,K=2のシステムに類似していることが示唆された.これは,数値実験による需要分布が1次元上の場合の理論的な中心地システムに合致しており,理論と現実との間に一定の関係が認められた. 2. もうひとつの対象地域である徳島県吉野川流域で同様の分析を行った結果,同地域の中心地システムは階層および中心地の分布ともに,より複雑であることが分かった.これは,吉野川の水運と街道の関係が相互補完的であり,藍染・葉タバコの集散地である都市的集落や新旧街道沿いの集落の発達・衰退など,交通条件の変化が主な要因として考えられる.したがって,現実の中心地システムは,数値実験による理論的なシステムとは必ずしも合致せず,今後は,交通条件を加味したモデル構築の必要性があることが示唆された., kaken
  • Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), 1996, 1997, 08680174, Behavioral Approach to Migration within Tama New Town, SUGIURA Yoshio; ISHIZAKI Kenji; WAKABAYASHI Yoshiki, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, TOKYO METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY, 2100000, 2100000, Migration caused by residential change within Tama New Town is analyzed with special reference to both of physical and social aspects of residential environment. Questionnaires were distribnted to the two types of sampled households which have recently changed residence within Tama New Town and those neighboring to them in order to obtain the data on reasons of residential change and evaluation of residential environment. The average image of the sampled households is characteristic of white-collar. class whose head of the household is in his forties and whose number of household members is four. The main reasons of residential change are attributed to the birth and growth of their children and dissatisfaction with residential environment. Moved households are much more dissatisfied with residence-relevant items such as the size of house and the plan of house than stayed-households. Spatial distribution of composite evaluation of residential environment is analyzed with GIS, so that it turns out that the evaluation depends on topography and accessibility to various, public and commercial facilities. Logit modeling on the decision to move or to stay reveals that the decision to move is well accounted for by residence-relevant variables rather than living-environment-relevant variables such as amenity, safety and convenience., kaken
  • 奨励研究(A), 1996, 1996, 08780132, 学区設定支援システムを用いた多摩市の学校計画に関する研究, 石崎 研二, 日本学術振興会, 科学研究費助成事業, 東京都立大学, 1000000, 1000000, 本研究では,近年,全市規模の学区見直しが問題となっている多摩市を対象地域として,線形計画法を用いた学区支援システムの構築,および地理情報システム(GIS)による学区設定の空間分析を行なった.その結果,以下の知見が得られた. 1.ゼンリンの電子地図『多摩市』から取り込んだ,道路ネットワーク・行政界・小中学校の位置に関する空間データ,および平成2年国勢調査に基づく属性データをリンクさせ,多摩ニュータウンが開発された1971年以降の学区設定に関してGISで分析した結果,(1)開発初期にあたる諏訪・永山地区において,公団・公社・都営住宅のセグリゲーションが顕著であること,(2)学区の境界は交通量の多い幹線道路や標高差の大きい崖などで設定されていること,などが分かった. 2.多摩市の町丁目に基づく114地区と小学校25校を基礎単位とし,通学距離,通学困難性,学校規模,公団・公社・都営のセグリゲーション指数などを指標として,線形計画法を用いて学区設定のシミュレーションを行ない,現状の学区を評価した結果,(1)現状の学区は通学困難性,学校規模ではほぼ適正といえるが,通学距離,セグリゲーション指数からみると改善の余地が残されていること,(2)今後,小中学校の統廃合が行なわれた際,学校規模の格差は是正されるものの,通学距離,通学困難性に関して地域格差が生じるであろうこと,などが示唆された. 3.今後,必要とされる課題として,国勢調査統計区などのより細かな地域単位を対象とした,計算上大規模な問題にも対処しうるシステムづくりが実用的かつ有用であると考えられる., kaken
  • Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research, 01 Apr. 2013, 31 Mar. 2016, 25580174, An Applied Research of Historical GIS on classifying and regional characteristics of Keyhole-shaped tumuli, IDETA Kazuhisa; ISHIZAKI Kenji; MIYAZAKI Yoshimi, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Nara Women's University, 3640000, 2800000, 840000, A Keyhole-shaped tumulus, a Zenpokoenhun, was made as a tomb of ancient powerful clan leader from the 4th century to the 6th century in Japan. I made various distribution maps of Zenpokoenhuns according to scale of each Zenpokoenhun, to the geographical condition where it had been located and to the time when it had been constructed. Then I examined the distribution maps based on a nationwide viewpoint. As a result, the burial mounds were made concentratedly in Western Japan at the beginning, to the west of Kinki, but gradually spread through the whole country. And I was able to clarify the local difference between the phase of diffusion of the tombs and diffusive situation in detail. Besides, I tried examination about the association between change of distribution of the tombs and the power of powerful families in every area. In addition, I constructed a "WebGIS database of the Zenpokoenhuns"., kaken
  • Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), 01 Apr. 2012, 31 Mar. 2015, 24520894, Revisiting Yoshio Watanabe's Central Place Studies, SUGIURA Yoshio; HARAYAMA Michiko; ISHIZAKI Kenji, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 5330000, 4100000, 1230000, Setting the Tohoku region as a research laboratory, Yoshio Watanabe wrote many papers concerning central place system in the 1950s through the later 1960s, which resulted in a typology of central place system based on topography. The originality of his central place studies is summarized as follows: 1) he contrived simple and fully worked-out methods to classify central functions skillfully using (triangle) section paper; 2) he suggested that as a causal factor to form the central place system in the Tohoku region, the social relationship between urban settlement and rural area in the feudal system was more effective than the economic principle on which central place theory was based., kaken
  • Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), 01 Apr. 2011, 31 Mar. 2014, 23320137, Ancient Capital and City's Enviroment in Japan, TATENO KAZUMI; IDETA Kazuhisa; ISHIZAKI Kenji; OKUMURA Kazumi; MIYAJI Atsuko; TAKADA Masashi; MIYAZAKI Yoshimi; SHISHIDO Yoshimi, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Nara Women's University, 14820000, 11400000, 3420000, The aim of our research is to deepen the understanding of Japanese ancient capitals and cities from environmental viewpoint.As a result, we came to the following conclusions. The first was that mountains and rivers used to be primary factors in deciding the location of the capitals,Dazaifu and other cities. Secondly, we clarified that after the constructions of capitals, out of the necessity of Li, attempted to keep the spiritual purity of the capitals and the shape of mountains surrounding the capitals. Thirdly, through the re-examination of historical records, we came to deny a common view that when the government selected the location of the new capitals, they tended to apply the Feng sui system to the surrounding mountains and rivers. To make our conclusions known to the public, we published a report in two volumes; one gathers historical documents and the other is a collection of research papers., kaken
  • Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), 2009, 2011, 21520800, Edgar Kant's Pioneering Central Place Study in Northern Europe, SUGIURA Yoshio; HARAYAMA Michiko; ISHIZAKI Kenji, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 4420000, 3400000, 1020000, In 1935 Edgar Kant, an Estonian geographer in pre-World War II, firstly did research to test Christaller's central place theory in the world, which corresponds to the latter half of his Ph. D. thesis. Following Bobek(1935) who had criticized Christaller's methodology to measure the centrality using the number of telephones without taking into account the economic base of urban settlement, Kant classified central places in Estonia based on the industrial population. Soon after then, Kant's study on central places was applied to make a plan of territorial reorganization of municipalities in Estonia just independent of the Russian Empire. This applied work is also the first attempt to apply central place theory to the planning in the world, heralding Germany, the cradle of central place theory., kaken

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