Researchers Database

SATO Hiroaki

FacultyFaculty Division of Natural Sciences Research Group of Biological Sciences
PositionAssociate Professor
Last Updated :2023/12/07


Profile and Settings

  • Name (Japanese)

  • Name (Kana)



  • Ph.D, Hokkaido University

Research Interests

  • insect taxonomy and systematics, animal ecology, community ecology, animal behaviour, evolutionary ecology

Research Areas

  • Life sciences, Evolutionary biology
  • Life sciences, Biodiversity and systematics
  • Life sciences, Ecology and environmental science

Research Experience

  • Oct. 1998, Nara Women's University, Assistant Professor


  • Apr. 1984, Mar. 1987, Hokkaido University, Graduate School, Division of Environmental Science, Environment Conservation
  • Mar. 1978, Mar. 1982, Hokkaido University, Faculty of Science, Zoological Institute

Teaching Experience

  • An Introduction of Ecology, Nara Women's University
  • Biogeochemistry, Nara Women's University
  • Statistics of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Nara Women's University
  • Basic seminerar of biologically environmental science IA, Nara Women's University
  • Basic practice of biologically environmental science IA, Nara Women's University
  • Field practice of stream ecology, Nara Women's University
  • General Environmental Science, Nara Women's University
  • Field Experiments of Ecology, Nara Women's University
  • Special lecture of biology 6, Nara Women's University
  • Special lecture of biology 1, Nara Women's University
  • Einglish in Biological Science, Nara Women's University
  • Global Environmental Biology, Nara Women's University
  • Seminar on Global Environment and Biology III, Nara Women's University
  • Seminar on Global Enbironment and Biology I, Nara Women's University
  • An Aspect of Global Environment and Biology I, Nara Women's University
  • Environmnet, Nara Women's University
  • History and Natural Environment of Nara, Nara Women's University
  • Field Experiments of Ecology II, Nara Women's University
  • Evolutionary Biology, Nara Women's University
  • Seminar on Global Enbironment and Biology, Nara Women's University
  • An Aspect of Global Environment and Biology II, Nara Women's University
  • Animal morphology and systematics practice, Nara Women's University
  • Biological methodology, Nara Women's University
  • Field Practice of Global Environment and Biology, Nara Women's University
  • Conservation Biology, Nara Women's University
  • Graduation research, Nara Women's University
  • Special lecture of biology, Nara Women's University
  • Biology Pracitce II, Nara Women's University
  • Basic Biology Practice I, Nara Women's University
  • Field Practice of Aquatic Biology, Nara Women's University
  • Biological Evolution, Nara Women's University
  • Biometry, Nara Women's University

Association Memberships

  • 日本生態学会
  • 日本昆虫学会
  • 日本応用動物昆虫学会
  • 日本アフリカ学会
  • Entomological Society of America


Published Papers

  • Refereed, Oecologia, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, Intense browsing by sika deer (Cervus nippon) drives the genetic differentiation of hairy nettle (Urtica thunbergiana) populations, Tetsuo I. Kohyama; Mei Yoshida; Masahito T. Kimura; Hiroaki Sato, Aug. 2021, 196, 4, 1095, 1106, Scientific journal, 10.1007/s00442-021-04988-7
  • Refereed, European Journal of Entomology, Biology Centre, AS CR, Differences in the niches of keratin/chitin feeding moths (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) in bird nests in central Japan, Hiroaki SATO; Yoshitsugu NASU; Shiro MURAHAMA; Hiroyuki MATSUMURO; Keisuke UEDA, 27 Nov. 2019, 116, 442, 449, Scientific journal, 10.14411/eje.2019.045
  • Refereed, Plant Ecology, Differences in flowering phenology, architecture, sexual expression and resource allocation between a heavily haired and a lightly haired nettle population: relationships with sika deer, SATO Hiroaki, Feb. 2019, 220, 255?266
  • Refereed, Applied Entomology and Zoology, Reduction of sooty mold damage through biocontrol of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) using selective insecticides in tomato cultivation greenhouses, SATO Hiroaki; Kamikawa S; Imura T; Sato H, Jun. 2018, 53, 395?402
  • Refereed, Ecosphere, Differential performace of red admiral butterflies on variants of Japanese nettle populations under intese versus low pressure from sika deer., SATO Hiroaki; Kohyama T; Horikawa C; Kawai S; Shikata M; Kato T; Sato H, Jan. 2017, 8, e01568
  • Refereed, ZOOKEYS, PENSOFT PUBL, A review of the Japanese species of the family Tischeriidae (Lepidoptera), Shigeki Kobayashi; Hiroaki Sato; Nagao Hirano; Kazutaka Yamada; Toshiya Hirowatari, This paper provides taxonomic and biological data on one new and one newly recorded species of Coptotriche Walsingham and one new and one newly recorded species of Tischeria Zeller from Japan. Coptotriche symplocosella Kobayashi & Hirowatari, sp. n. (host Symplocos lucida, Symplocaceae), and Tischeria kumatai Sato, Kobayashi & Hirowatari, sp. n. (host Tilia japonica, Malvaceae) are described. The pupal morphology of C. symplocosella is illustrated with scanning electron micrographs. Coptotriche minuta Diskus & Stonis, 2014 and Tischeria relictana Ermolaev, 1986 are newly recorded from Japan. The female, hostplants (Carpinus, Corylus, and Ostrya species), and immature stages of C. minuta and the adult features, female, and hostplants (Betula species) of T. relictana are described with photographs and drawings for the first time. Mine types and characters of Japanese Tischeriidae are reviewed with photographs., 2016, 601, 601, 127, 151, 10.3897/zookeys.601.7782
  • Refereed, Ecological Research, Springer-Verlag Tokyo, Stinging hairs on the Japanese nettle Urtica thunbergiana have a defensive function against mammalian but not insect herbivores, Misaki Iwamoto; Chika Horikawa; Megumi Shikata; Naoko Wasaka; Teiko Kato; Hiroaki Sato, Thorns and hairs of plants can serve as defenses against herbivores, although they may not have evolved under selection by herbivory. Japanese nettles, Urtica thunbergiana, in Nara Park, Nara Prefecture, Japan, where sika deer have been protected for 1200 years, bear many more stinging hairs than those in areas with few or no deer. Previous studies suggested that such hairy nettles evolved under natural selection imposed by intense deer browsing, because stinging hairs deterred deer browsing and because among-population variation in hair density was associated with deer abundance. To confirm this hypothesis, we examined (1) whether stinging hairs affected oviposition and feeding preferences of herbivorous insects and (2) the degree to which they deterred deer via laboratory and field experiments with hairy nettles from Nara Park and with almost-hairless nettles from another area. A specialist butterfly, Indian red admiral, showed no oviposition or larval feeding preferences for either hairy or hairless nettles. Insect damage levels did not significantly differ between the two variants. In contrast, deer browsed hairless nettles more heavily than hairy ones. In hairy nettles, however, the level of deer browsing was not proportional to stinging-hair density, presumably because the hairy nettle population had reached a plateau for resistance as a result of long-term strong directional selection for stinging hairs. These results corroborate the hypothesis that hairy nettles in Nara Park evolved through natural selection under intense deer browsing. © 2014 The Ecological Society of Japan., 2014, 29, 3, 455, 462, Scientific journal, 10.1007/s11284-014-1137-2
  • Refereed, Ecological Research, Among-population variation in resistance traits of a nettle and its relationship with deer habitat use frequency, Megumi Shikata; Teiko Kato; Ei'ich Shibata; Hiroaki Sato, Because leaf hairs serve as resistance against herbivores, among-population variation in hair production may arise from adaptation to local herbivore communities. It is possible that Japanese nettle (Urtica thunbergiana) shows among-population variation in stinging hair abundance that is associated with the frequency of habitat use by sika deer (Cervus nippon). We examined 31-32 individuals of each of 19 populations for leaf area, stinging hair number (/leaf) and stinging hair density (per square centimeter) in and away from Nara Park (6.6 km2), where many deer have been protected for 1,200 years. At each site we also measured deer habitat use frequency, light intensity and soil fertility as environmental factors potentially affecting leaf traits. We analyzed our hierarchical data at the levels of individuals and populations using multilevel structural equation modeling. Leaf area had a positive direct effect on stinging hair number at the individual level but no significant effect at the population level. At the population level, deer habitat use frequency had a negative direct effect on leaf area and positive direct effects on stinging hair number and density, generating a negative indirect correlation between leaf area and stinging hair number. Light intensity had a negative direct effect on leaf area, while soil fertility had no significant effect on any trait. These results suggest that the relationships between leaf area and stinging hair number at the two levels do not align. We discussed what processes were involved in the effects of environmental factors on leaf traits. © 2012 The Ecological Society of Japan., 2013, 28, 2, 207, 216, Scientific journal, 10.1007/s11284-012-1007-8
  • Refereed, ANNALS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, ENTOMOLOGICAL SOC AMER, Early Leaf Abscission Has Little Effect on Larval Mortality of Ectoedemia cerviparadisicola (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae) Associated With Quercus gilva, Yukari Shinozaki; Ayaka Yamamoto; Masako Oishi; Hiroaki Sato, There has been an argument as to whether early leaf abscission substantially affects larval mortality of leafminers because of leaf senescence. Recently, a study reported that leaf abscission considerably increased the mortality of a leafminer (Ectoedemia cerviparadisicola Sato, sp. nov.) associated with Quercus gilva (Blume) in Nara Park, central Japan, where sika deer (Cervus nippon (Temminck)) have been protected for 1,200 yr, because deer consumed many abscised leaves containing living larvae. The study, however, did not investigate the life history of the leafminer or survey the leaf-fall pattern of Q. gilva through the season, so that it failed to quantify larval mortality because of deer predation. To test whether deer have a substantial effect on larval mortality of this leafminer, we regularly collected abscised and nonabscised leaves of Q. gilva through the season, examining mines and larvae in those leaves. Over 90% of mined leaves abscised in the period of peak leaf fall, when almost all larvae had already emerged from mines to pupate. Most dead larvae in abscised leaves were judged to have already died at the time of abscission from their instars and body features. The proportion of living larvae in abscised leaves was estimated to be <1.8%. Thus, even when deer preyed upon all living larvae in abscised leaves, they would hardly contribute to the increase in larval mortality. These results indicate that the effect of leaf abscission on leafminer mortality via deer predation and other causes is limited. The leafminer was described as new to science in the Appendix., Jul. 2012, 105, 4, 572, 581, Scientific journal, 10.1603/AN11185
  • Refereed, JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH, SPRINGER TOKYO, Differences in leafminer (Phyllonorycter, Gracillariidae, Lepidoptera) and aphid (Tuberculatus, Aphididae, Hemiptera) composition among Quercus dentata, Q. crispula, Q. serrata, and their hybrids, Yoshihiro Hata; Takuto Hashiba; Takashi Nakamura; Masashi Kitamura; Takahide A. Ishida; Shin-ichi Akimoto; Hiroaki Sato; Masahito T. Kimura, Leafminer (Phyllonorycter, Gracillariidae, Lepidoptera) and aphid (Tuberculatus, Aphididae, Hemiptera) composition were studied in three deciduous oak species, Quercus dentata, Q. crispula, and Q. serrata, and their hybrids in Tomakomai Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, northern Japan. Identification of trees in this forest was done mainly on the basis of discriminant analysis on leaf morphology with reference to trees in pure Q. dentata and Q. crispula stands and a Q. serrata stand mixed with Q. crispula. The results suggested that hybridization occurred in all combinations (i.e. Q. dentata-Q. crispula, Q. crispula-Q. serrata, and Q. serrata-Q. dentata) and the frequency of hybrids was approximately 10%. The composition of Phyllonorycter and Tuberculatus species differed between Q. dentata and Q. crispula or Q. serrata, but did not differ between Q. crispula and Q. serrata. Thus, Q. dentata could differ from Q. crispula and Q. serrata in chemical properties that determine herbivore host selection, survival, and performance, possibly reflecting eco-physiological differences or phylogenetic distances. The study insects were divided into three groups: species specialized to Q. dentata (three Phyllonorycter and one Tuberculatus species), those to Q. crispula and Q. serrata (six Phyllonorycter and two Tuberculatus species), and a species collected at least from Q. dentata and Q. crispula (one Tuberculatus species). Putative hybrid trees of Q. dentata and Q. crispula harbored both Q. dentata-specific and Q. crispula-specific insects., Aug. 2011, 16, 4, 309, 318, Scientific journal, 10.1007/s10310-010-0230-9
  • Refereed, Japanese journal of conservation ecology, The Ecological Society of Japan, ニホンジカが高密度に生息する奈良県大台ヶ原に置ける1983?2001年の植生変化., SATO Hiroaki, With increasing numbers of sika deer Cervus nippon, primary forests have declined considerably since the 1980s on the Ohdaigahara Subalpine Plateau, central Japan. However, a comprehensive survey of the vegetation on the plateau has not been conducted since 1983. Therefore, in 2001, we surveyed the vegetation on the plateau in 197, 20×20-m quadrats, analyzed species composition using the phytosociological methodology, and generated a vegetation map. After 1983, Carici-Piceetum jezoensis var. hondoensis rhododendretosum quinquefolii and associated Sasa nipponica extended their ranges in the eastern part of the plateau, whereas Abieti homolepidis-Fagetum crenatae sasetosum borealis expanded in western areas. In the eastern region of the plateau, Rhododendron quinquefolium, which was rarely browsed by sika deer, became prominent, the areas with few P. jezoensis trees increased, and the forest floor became densely covered with Sasa nipponica, which is highly tolerant of sika deer browsing. In the western region, Sasamorpha borealis, which had previously covered the forest floor, was replaced by Skimmia japonica, which is not preferred by sika deer., Nov. 2009, 14, 2, 263-278, 278
  • Refereed, Journal of the Lepidopterist's Society, Life histroy traits, larval habits and larval morphology of a leafminer, Coptotriche japoniella (Tischeriidae), on an evergreen tree, Eurya japonica (Theaceae)., SATO Hiroaki; Masako Oishi, Jun. 2009, 63, 2, 93-99
  • Refereed, ACTA OECOLOGICA-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, GAUTHIER-VILLARS/EDITIONS ELSEVIER, Population dynamics of leafminers on a deciduous oak Quercus dentata, Takashi Nakamura; Kouhei Hattori; Takahide A. Ishida; Hiroaki Sato; Masahito T. Kimura, Population dynamics of leafminers on a deciduous oak Quercus dentata, were studied for 9 years in northern Japan. Most leafminers in the study site were bivoltine, while a gregarious Stigmella species was univoltine. Many leafminers showed species-specific patterns of population fluctuations. in the major bivoltine leafminers (Phyllonorycter, solitary Stigmella and Caloptilia species), the densities of autumn generation mines were highly correlated with those of summer generation mines when analysed on the basis of the densities at the early developmental stage. Thus, their mortality and egg productivity in this phase (i.e., from late June to early September) varied only a little from year to year. In Phyllonorycter, however, correlation of densities between these two generations became lower when analysed on the basis of the densities at the tissue-feeding stage, suggesting that their mortality from the early developmental stage to the tissue-feeding stage in the autumn generation varied from year to year. Regression analyses suggest that yearly variation in precipitation in July and August was responsible for this variation. Correlations of densities between the autumn generation and the summer generation of the next year in the major leafminers were not high. Thus, their mortality and/or egg productivity in this phase (i.e., from September to June of the next year) varied from year to year. Regression analyses suggest that climatic factors that affected the population dynamics in this phase varied among the leafminers, except some factors have been suggested to be commonly effective in the two Phyllonorycter species. Density-dependent effects were not explicit in the population dynamics of the present leafminers. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS., Nov. 2008, 34, 3, 259, 265, Scientific journal, 10.1016/j.actao.2008.03.008
  • Refereed, ENVIRONMENTAL ENTOMOLOGY, ENTOMOLOGICAL SOC AMER, Guild Structure and Coexistence Mechanisms in the Parasitoid Assemblage Associated with a Leafminer, Coptotriche japoniella (Lepidoptera, Tischeriidae), on an Evergreen Tree, Eurya japonica (Theaceae), Masako Oishi; Hiroaki Sato, The parasitoid assemblage associated with it lepidopteran leafminer, Coptotriche Japoniella (Tischeriidae), on an evergreen tree, Eurya Japonica (Theaceae), was studied in the center of Japan to explore parasitoid coexistence mechanisms. The leafminer supported 12 parasitoid species. Eight abundant or common species were classified into five guilds according to their koinobiont/idiobiont mode and host-instar utilization pattern: early larval koinobiont, mid-larval idiobiont, mid-larval-late idiobiont, late larval-pupal idiobiont, and pupal idiobiont. The early larval koinobiont (Orgilus Kunatai) and mid-larval idiobiont (Achrysocharoides sp.) seemed to be specialized on the host, whereas the members of the other guilds had a wide host range. The mid-larval-late larval (Cirrospilus diallus and Pnigalio sp.) or late larval-pupal idiobionts (Chrysocharis albipes, Apleurotropis kumatai, and Pleurotroppopsis japonica) facultatively hyperparasitized half of spinning larvae or pupae of the early larval koinobiont. These results suggest that parasitoid coexistence in this assemblage is greatly promoted by high levels of facultative hyperparasitism by idiobiouts with wide host ranges on the dominant koinobiont., Oct. 2008, 37, 5, 1231, 1240, Scientific journal
  • Refereed, Mammal Study, Application of fecal pellet group count to sika deer (Cervus nippon) population monitoring on Mt. Ohdaigahara, central Japan, Roku Goda; Masaki Ando; Hiroaki Sato; Ei'Ichi Shibata, The relationship between the number of fecal pellet groups found in line transects and estimates of deer density based on block counts on Mt. Ohdaigahara in central Japan was examined and the validity of fecal pellet group counts for obtaining an index of sika deer population density was assessed. Sika deer population densities estimated by block count were 13.0km2 in spring, 18.3km2 in summer and 19.0km2 in autumn. Fecal pellet group counts showed low positive correlations with deer density in spring and autumn (0.69 in spring and 0.68 in autumn), but not in summer, indicating that deer density may not be predictable then. We suggest that fecal pellet group count reflects deer density in spring or autumn, and might be feasible as an index of deer population density. © the Mammalogical Society of Japan., Sep. 2008, 33, 3, 93, 97, Scientific journal, 10.3106/1348-6160(2008)33[93:AOFPGC]2.0.CO;2
  • Refereed, ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH, SPRINGER TOKYO, The evolution of nettle resistance to heavy deer browsing, Teiko Kato; Kiyoshi Ishida; Hiroaki Sato, We examined whether heavy browsing by sika deer, Cervus nippon Temminck, changed morphological characteristics of a Japanese nettle, Urtica thunbergiana Sieb. et Zucc., in Nara Park, where a large population of sika deer has been maintained for more than 1,200 years. Wild nettles of Nara Park exhibited smaller leaf area, 11-223 times more stinging hairs per leaf, and 58-630-times higher stinging hair densities than those of other areas where there was no evidence of sika deer browsing. There were no significant differences in stinging hair length between the areas. Nettles from Nara Park that were cultivated from seeds in a greenhouse retained a larger number and higher density of stinging hairs. In the field, nettles of Nara Park were less frequently browsed by sika deer and showed higher survivorship than nettles that were transplanted from an unbrowsed area into Nara Park. These results indicate that: (1) the U. thunbergiana population of Nara Park has an extremely high stinging hair density compared with those of unbrowsed areas; (2) this characteristic has a genetic basis, and (3) stinging hairs serve as a defensive structure against sika deer, contributing to an increase in survivorship. Thus, we conclude that a U. thunbergiana population in Nara Park, with extremely high stinging hair densities, has evolved through natural selection due to heavy browsing by sika deer., Mar. 2008, 23, 2, 339, 345, Scientific journal, 10.1007/s11284-007-0387-7
  • Refereed, ENVIRONMENTAL ENTOMOLOGY, ENTOMOLOGICAL SOC AMER, Inhibition of premature leaf abscission by a leafminer and its adaptive significance, Masako Oishi; Hiroaki Sato, We tested the possibility that a lepidopteran leafminer, Coptotriche japoniella Puplesis and Diskus, inhibits the host plant Eurya japonica Thunberg from abscising mined leaves prematurely to increase its survivorship in immature stage. We monitored abscission patterns of mined leaves with sacrificed larvae, mined leaves with living larvae, and unmined leaves from April to July 2004 and 2005 until leafminers emerged as adults. Unmined leaves rarely abscised before July. Mined leaves with sacrificed larvae fell at a constant rate after May, abscising significantly more than unmined leaves. In contrast, mined leaves with living larvae rarely fell before adult emergence; afterward they abscised rapidly. We also examined larval/pupal survivorship and mortalitv sources on the ground and trees after leafminers completed larval development. Leafminers on the ground suffered a higher mortality from predation than those on trees, and thus they emerged as adults on the ground less successfully. These findings suggest that the leafminer C. japoniella prevents the host plant front abscising mined leaves prematurely until adult emergence, thereby increasing their survivorship., Dec. 2007, 36, 6, 1504, 1511, Scientific journal
  • Refereed, BASIC AND APPLIED ECOLOGY, ELSEVIER GMBH, URBAN & FISCHER VERLAG, Group size of feeding stream case-bearing caddisfly grazers and resource abundance, Izumi Katano; Hiromune Mitsuhashi; Yu Isobe; Hiroaki Sato; Tadashi Oishi, Several herbivorous insects are known to benefit from feeding in groups; however, little is known about (1) the resource conditions under which herbivorous insects perform group feeding and (2) the optimum population size to get any benefits by group feeding, for example, in terms of growth performance. To test the hypotheses that the benefits from group feeding change with resource level and population size, we performed field investigations and an enclosure experiment using the grazer caddisfly larva Micrasema quadriloba. The field investigations revealed aggregated distributions of larvae (indicator of aggregation, 1(delta) = 4.1 +/- 1.55, aggregated density: 12.7 +/- 5.3 individuals per 3.1 x 3.1 cm(2) (mean +/- 1 SD) when periphyton was abundant on stream cobbles and random distributions (I-delta = 1.0 +/- 0.11) when periphyton was scarce. In the enclosure experiment, the relative-growth rate (RGR) of the larvae at each population size showed different tendencies at high and low periphyton abundance Levels; RGR with abundant periphyton had a convex curve with a peak at intermediate population size, whereas RGR with scarce periphyton decreased linearly with increasing population size. The benefits from group feeding thus changed with resource level; larvae obtained high growth performance by group feeding behavior only when the resource was sufficiently abundant. The present study revealed not only that the optimum group size of larvae increased their growth performance, but also that this optimum group size occurred frequently in the field. We also discuss the mechanisms and benefits of group feeding by case-bearing caddisfly grazers. (C) 2006 Gesellschaft fur Okologie. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved., 2007, 8, 3, 269, 279, Scientific journal, 10.1016/j.baae.2006.03.001
  • Refereed, SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH, TAYLOR & FRANCIS AS, Among-tree variation in leaf traits and herbivore attacks in a deciduous oak, Quercus dentata, Masashi Kitamura; Takashi Nakamura; Kouhei Hattori; Takahide A. Ishida; Satoshi Shibata; Hiroaki Sato; Masahito T. Kimura, Variations in defensive and some other leaf traits were studied in a population of an oak species, Quercus dentata Thunberg, in northern Japan, with reference to attacks by ectophagous herbivores and leafminers. The oak population showed substantial individual variations in concentrations of total phenolics and condensed tannins, nitrogen content, trichome density, leaf area and budburst timing. With the exception of leaf mass per area, which showed a positive relation with leaf toughness and a negative relation with water content, no significant relation was observed between the plant traits studied, suggesting an absence of trade-off or linkage between them. The oaks also showed substantial individual variations in leaf area loss by ectophagous herbivores, densities of major leafminers (Phyllonorycter and Stigmella species) and survival of Phyllonorycter sap-feeding larvae. The density of trichomes showed a significant, negative relation with leaf area loss by ectophagous herbivores, but significant, positive relations with densities of some leafminers. The other leaf traits seldom showed significant relations with herbivore densities or survival. In this oak population, these traits may not have enough variations to be reflected in the abundance and performance of herbivores., 2007, 22, 3, 211, 218, Scientific journal, 10.1080/02827580701217893
  • Refereed, ENTOMOLOGICAL SCIENCE, BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, Japanese oak silkmoth feeding preference for and performance on upper-crown and lower-crown leaves, M Oishi; T Yokota; N Teramoto; H Sato, We quantified differences in leaf traits between upper and lower crowns of a deciduous oak, Quercus acutissima, and examined feeding preference, consumption and performance of the Japanese oak silkmoth, Antheraea yamamai, for those leaves. Upper-crown leaves had significantly smaller area, larger dry mass per area, greater thickness, lower water content, higher nitrogen content and a higher N/C ratio than lower-crown leaves. When simultaneously offered upper-crown and lower-crown leaves, moth larvae consumed a significantly larger amount of the former. However, when fed with either upper-crown or lower-crown leaves (no choice), they consumed a significantly larger amount of the latter. Female larvae reared on upper-crown leaves had a significantly smaller fresh weight, but attained a significantly larger pupal fresh and dry weight, with a significantly higher relative growth rate than those on lower-crown leaves. Although, like female larvae, male larvae had a significantly smaller fresh weight when reared on upper-crown leaves, they had a significantly larger value only for pupal dry weight. These results suggest that: (i) larvae ingest a greater amount of lower-crown leaves to compensate for the lower nitrogen content of the foliage, resulting in having an excess of water because of the higher water content of the foliage; (ii) feeding preference for upper-crown leaves accords with better performance (with respect to dry pupal weight and relative growth rate) on the foliage; (iii) better performance is explained by a higher nitrogen content and N/C ratio of the upper-crown foliage; and (iv) the effects of leaf quality on performance differ between sexes., Jun. 2006, 9, 2, 161, 169, Scientific journal, 10.1111/j.1479-8298.2006.00163.x
  • Refereed, ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE, ZOOLOGICAL SOC JAPAN, Reach-scale distribution dynamics of a grazing stream insect, Micrasema quadriloba Martynov (Brachycentridae, Trichoptera), in relation to current velocity and periphyton abundance, Katano, I; H Mitsuhashi; Y Isobe; H Sato; T Oishi, Reach-scale temporal shifts in the distribution of larvae of a grazing caddisfly, Micrasema quadriloba (Brachycentridae), were investigated in a Japanese mountain stream. The larvae showed an aggregated distribution within the reach at the beginning of the immigration, then became randomly dispersed throughout the reach as the immigration progressed. The abundance of periphyton in the reach decreased dramatically with increasing dispersal of the larvae. Simple regression analyses revealed that the stream's flow regime was the most important environmental factor that determined the reach-scale distribution of the larvae and that the relationship between the flow regime and the distribution of the larvae shifted temporally. In addition, our results suggest that only this species of grazing insect, which was dominant in the study reach, controlled the reach-scale abundance of the periphyton., Aug. 2005, 22, 8, 853, 860, Scientific journal, 10.2108/zsj.22.853
  • Refereed, MECHANISMS OF AGEING AND DEVELOPMENT, ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, A new mutation in the timing of autogamy in Paramecium tetraurelia, R Komori; H Sato; T Harumoto; Y Takagi, We have isolated a new type of Paramecium tetraurelia mutant, named rie-2, that has a long immaturity period until autogamy. We previously isolated such an autogamy mutant, designated rie-1. These two mutants had some additional common features such as dependence of the occurrence of autogamy on the temperature, involvement of a single recessive gene, lower fission rate and shorter clonal life span. However, rie-2 was considered a new type mutant distinguishable from rie-1 because of their different natures of temperature sensitivity. First, the temperature at which they resembled the wild-type phenotype was low (19 C) in rie-2, although it was high (32 &DEG; C) in rie-1. Second, the clonal life span of rie-2 at 25 &DEG; C was similar to that of the wild-type, but it was extremely shorter at 32 &DEG; C than at 25 &DEG; C, although it was similarly shorter at both temperatures in rie-1. Third, the difference of the fission rate between mutant and wild-type was greater at 32 &DEG; C than at 25 &DEG; C in rie-2, although it was similar at both temperatures in rie-1. This report shows that a gene mutation to elongate the period until sexual maturation does not necessarily assure the long life span. © 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved., Jun. 2005, 126, 6-7, 752, 759, Scientific journal, 10.1016/j.mad.2005.01.010
  • Refereed, ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH, SPRINGER TOKYO, Diversity of dung-beetle community in declining Japanese subalpine forest caused by an increasing sika deer population, N Kanda; T Yokota; E Shibata; H Sato, The Ohdaigahara subalpine plateau in Japan has recently suffered a reduction in primary forest land caused by an increasing population of sika deer (Cervus nippon). Deer have debarked many trees, causing die-back, gradually changing the primary forest first to light forest with a floor that is densely covered with sasa grass (Sasa nipponica) and then to S. nipponica grassland. To examine the effects of vegetative transformation on the dung-beetle community, we compared the diversity and abundance of dung-beetle assemblages in the primary forest, transition forest, and S. nipponica grassland using dung-baited pitfall traps. The species richness and species diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) were significantly highest in the primary forest and lowest in the S. nipponica grassland. The evenness (Smith-Wilson index) was highest in the primary forest and nearly equal in the transition forest and S. nipponica grassland. The abundance was apparently greater in the transition forest than in the primary forest and S. nipponica grassland. These results suggest that loss of primary forest resulting from an increasing deer population decreases the diversity of the dung-beetle community while increasing the abundance of dung beetles in the transition forest. Sika deer use transition forests and grasslands more frequently than primary forests as habitat, but an increase in dung supply there does not necessarily increase the diversity or abundance of dung-beetle assemblages., Mar. 2005, 20, 2, 135, 141, Scientific journal, 10.1007/s11284-004-0033-6
  • Refereed, Japanese journal of conservation ecology, The Ecological Society of Japan, 奈良県大台ヶ原における糞粒法によるニホンジカの生息密度推定とその問題点, SATO Hiroaki, Estimating the size of sika deer (Cervus nippon) populations using fecal-pellet counts requires measurements of pellet density and defecation, pellet production and pellet decay rates. Although the latter three parameters vary with locality and season, parameters from one study are often used in other studies to minimize logistical costs. To obtain a more reliable size estimate of the deer population on the Ohdaigahara Subalpine Plateau in Japan, we assessed the number of pellets produced per defecation and the pellet decay rate in three types of vegetation (primary forest, Sasa nipponica grassland, and a transition area between these two types) from May to November 2001. We counted newly dropped pellets in quadrats in the primary forest and grassland every month. We estimated deer populations in the forest and grassland on the basis of these values in conjunction with defecation rates obtained from other studies. In addition, we examined the relationships between pellet decay rates and three variables: temperature, rainfall, and dung-beetle biomass. We found that pellet decay rates differed according to vegetation and season but were independent of temperature, rainfall, and dung-beetle biomass. As compared to estimates obtained using block count methods in other studies, the deer densities estimated by fecal-pellet counting in this study were considered overestimated, and varied with vegetation and season. On the basis of our results, we discuss the problems of estimating the size of deer populations using pellet counts and propose a procedure for a deer census that is suited to population management on the Ohdaigahara Subalpine Plateau., 2005, 10, 2, 185-193, 193
  • Refereed, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY, BOTANICAL SOC AMER INC, Differentiation and hybridization between Quercus crispula and Q-dentata (Fagaceae): Insights from morphological traits, amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, and leafminer composition, TA Ishida; K Hattori; H Sato; MT Kimura, Quercus crispida and Q. dentata (Fagaceae) are dominant members of cool-temperate forests of Japan and are assumed to hybridize in nature. To characterize and discriminate these two species and their hybrids, we carried out multivariate analysis using several morphological traits and principal coordinate analysis using molecular (amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP]) data. Further, we examined the composition of Phyllonorycter species (leafmining insects) on individuals from a mixed forest. Morphological traits and Phyllonorycter composition differ enough in these two oak species to be useful for identification of species and hybrids. AFLP data, however, are less informative because the degree of molecular differentiation between the two species is low. Nine out of 105 individuals from a mixed stand had intermediate morphologies according to the multivariate analysis, and eight out of the nine individuals had intermediate Phyllonorycter composition in either one or both of the two study years. These eight individuals were tentatively assigned as hybrids or backcross individuals, and the remaining individual with intermediate morphologies was assigned as Q. dentata according to its Phyllonorycter composition and the AFLP analysis., May 2003, 90, 5, 769, 776, Scientific journal
  • Refereed, ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH, BLACKWELL SCIENCE ASIA, Within-tree variation in density and survival of leafminers on oak Quercus dentata, S Shibata; TA Ishida; F Soeya; N Morino; K Yoshida; H Sato; MT Kimura, The density and survival of leafminers were examined on 50 sun leaves from each of 65 Quercus dentata Thunb, individuals in northern Japan in 1997 and 1998. Phyllonorycter (two species), Caloptilia tone species) and Stigmella (three species) were abundant or common on this oak in the study area. These leafminers appeared after mid-June, whereas most externally feeding caterpillars occurred from late May to early June when the water cont ent and nitrogen concentration of leaves were high. The density of these leafminers was about four times higher in 1998 than in 1997. A negative correlation was more often observed between mine density and leaf size, leaf wet weight per area or leaf toughness in the Phyllonorycter species, but the opposite correlation was more frequent for Caloptilia and Stigmella species. Conversely, no clear relation was observed between the survival of Phyllonorycter. larvae and leaf traits. In all leafminers except the gregarious Stigmella species, the mine density was more often positively correlated with leaf damage by chewing insects, and also the survival of Phyllonorycter larvae was often positively correlated with leaf damage. In the Phyllonorycter species, the survival of larvae tended to increase with the increase in density at the autumn generation. The correlation in the densities of mines between the summer and autumn generations was more frequently positive in the Pyllonorycter and Caloptilia species. In addition, the densities of different leafminers were often positively correlated. Thus, relations among leafminers, between leafminers and externally feeding caterpillars, and also between herbivores and host plants are complicated., Mar. 2001, 16, 1, 135, 143, Scientific journal
  • Refereed, INSECT SYSTEMATICS & EVOLUTION, APOLLO BOOKS, The pupal cremaster as a diagnostic character for species of Phyllonorycter (Lepidoptera : Gracillariidae), with description of a new species of the nipponicella complex from Japan, J Fujihara; H Sato; T Kumata, The pupal cremasters of twelve species of Japanese oak-feeding Phyllonorycter are examined. The cremasters, even those of closely related species, are specifically distinct. Combined with descriptions of European and North American species, the present results indicate that the cremaster can be used as a diagnostic character for the species of Phyllonorycter. A new species, P. persimilis, which was previously confused with P. similis Kumata, and the female of P. nipponicella (Issiki), hitherto unknown, are described. The nipponicella complex including these species is reviewed and the speciation of its members is discussed in relation to diversification of the host plant preference., 2000, 31, 4, 387, 400, Scientific journal
  • Refereed, JOURNAL OF INSECT BEHAVIOR, KLUWER ACADEMIC/PLENUM PUBL, Male participation in nest building in the dung beetle Scarabaeus catenatus (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae): Mating effort versus paternal effort, H Sato, The dung beetle, Scarabaeus catenatus, shows not only the rolling but also the tunneling tactic for nest building with bisexual cooperation. Sex roles, however, differed between the tactics. In rolling, the male rook the initiative like that of ball-roller species: he rolled a dung ball away and buried it. In tunneling, in contrast the male usually had a secondary role like that of tunnelers: he was less active in burrow excavation and provisioning. Regardless of the tactics, male participation did not increase female reproductive output measured by the number or size of brood balls in the field, but seemed to function as mate guarding against conspecific males. This suggests that, in both tactics, the male S. catenatus invests primarily in mating effort compared with paternal effort. The relative importance of mating effort in male participation seems to hold true in other dung beetles, irrespective of whether they are ball-roller or tunneler species. In addition, the male mating strategy of S. catenatus is compared with that of other ball-rollers., Nov. 1998, 11, 6, 833, 843, Scientific journal
  • Refereed, ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, BLACKWELL SCIENCE LTD, Payoffs of the two alternative nesting tactics in the African dung beetle, Scarabaeus catenatus, H Sato, 1. Scarabaeus catenatus is a ball-rolling scarab in the subfamily Scarabaeinae. This species, however, makes use of two tactics for nest building: rolling and tunnelling. The tunnelling tactic differs substantially from the rolling tactic in that (1) it always involves repeated movements to and from the dung source and the nest, whereas rolling does not, and (2) it involves a shorter distance between the two sites. 2. Brood-nest founders were usually males and less often females, with about 25% adopting the rolling tactic and 75% adopting the tunnelling tactic. During nest building, the founder paired off with a scarab of the opposite sex, and they co-operated in the work. The female made one to four brood balls from the dung in the nest, each of which contained one egg. 3. Each scarab seemed to be able to employ both tactics. The tactic employed was independent of an individual's status, e.g. body size and timing of nest founding. 4. The rolling tactic offered only male founders a greater nest-defence success than the tunnelling tactic due to a lower intrusion into the rolled nest and a higher intensity of male-male fighting. The tunnelling tactic offered both male and female founders a larger number of brood balls than the rolling tactic because it enabled scarabs to take a larger amount of dung into the nest. 5. The reproductive success for the two tactics was estimated from the product of nest-defence success and the number of brood balls. As a result, the two tactics had equal fitness payoffs for males, but unequal payoffs for females. 6. The results suggest that male alternation of tactics is controlled by a mixed strategy. Female alternation, however, cannot be explained by mixed strategy, alternative strategies or conditional strategy., Feb. 1998, 23, 1, 62, 67, Scientific journal
  • Refereed, JOURNAL OF NATURAL HISTORY, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, Two nesting behaviours and life history of a subsocial African dung-rolling beetle, Scarabaeus catenatus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), H Sato, Nesting behaviour of a large-sized dung beetle, Scarabaeus catenatus (Gerstaecker), was observed at the Tsavo West National Park, south-eastern Kenya. Although this species is taxonomically a member of a dung-roller group (that is, subfamily Scarabaeinae), it had not only a rolling behaviour but also a tunneller behaviour for nesting. In the former case, the scarab rolled a chunk or a ball of dung some distance (0.5-15.5 m) away from the dung pat and buried it under the ground. In the latter case, it dug a tunnel near the dung pat (0-1 m) and transported several pieces of dung into the burrow. In both cases, brood nests were completed by a female alone or by male-female co-operation. Four days after dung burial, the female made one to four brood balls out of buried dung, in each of which she deposited an egg. On the other hand, the male left the nest soon after the female completed oviposition. Even after oviposition, the female stayed in the nest and cared for her progeny until they emerged. This indicates that S. catenatus is subsocial. A major source of offspring mortality was likely to be predation by driver ants (Dorylus sp.). Most females seemed to breed one time in each of two or more successive rainy seasons., Mar. 1997, 31, 3, 457, 469, Scientific journal
  • Refereed, ENVIRONMENTAL ENTOMOLOGY, ENTOMOL SOC AMER, COMPARISON OF COMMUNITY COMPOSITION OF PARASITOIDS THAT ATTACK LEAF-MINING MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA, GRACILLARIIDAE), H SATO, Parasitoid assemblages associated with Phyllonorycter leaf miners (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) were examined on the 2 deciduous oaks, Quercus dentata and Q. mongolica, in Hokkaido, northern Japan, and those on 2 others, Q. acutissima and Q. variabilis, in Nara, central Japan. To address to what extent interspecific competition is important in organizing parasitoid communities, I compared species richness, species composition, and levels of parasitism by guilds at different host immature stages among the parasitoid assemblages. Parasitoids were separated into 5 guilds according to parasitism modes (idiobiosis and koinobiosis) and host immature stages attacked and killed. Pooled data showed that the number of parasitoid species per host leafminer species in Japan (3.1) was similar to that in the United Kingdom (4.1) and that idiobionts (potential generalists) exceeded koinobionts (specialists) in species number (62.5%). A koinobiont guild and 2 idiobiont guilds had an inverse relationship in level of parasitism between 2 assemblages at each study area. These results may suggest that interspecific competition is important in organizing parasitoid communities. Nevertheless, dominant species and guilds varied among the assemblages, resulting in different patterns of percentage of parasitism by guilds in relation to host stage among the assemblages. This implies underuse of hosts at some stages by parasitoids, and interspecific competition is unlikely to be severe. Interspecific competition, therefore, seems to partially contribute to parasitoid community organization., Aug. 1995, 24, 4, 879, 888, Scientific journal
  • Refereed, AQUATIC INSECTS, SWETS ZEITLINGER PUBLISHERS, LIFE-CYCLES OF GLOSSOSOMA-INOPS AND AGAPETUS-YASENSIS (TRICHOPTERA, GLOSSOSOMATIDAE) AT KII PENINSULA, SOUTHERN HONSHU, JAPAN, O SAMESHIMA; H SATO, Life cycles of the two saddle-case making caddisflies, Glossosoma inops (Tsuda) and Agapetus yasensis (Tsuda) (Trichoptera, Glossosomatidae), were studied in Akadani Stream, Kii Peninsula, southern Honshu, Japan. Larvae of G. inops occurred chiefly in the mainstream, while those of A. yasensis were restricted to a hillside tributary. Agapetus yasensis was univoltine. This species grew slowly from late August through March, overwintered in the third and fourth instars, and pupae occurred from late April to early August. On the other hand, G. inops seemed to be a trivoltine species which produces a partial third generation in summer: certain part of cohorts which hatched in July grew rapidly and emerged in late August, while the rest of them grew slowly and emerged in late November. The summer generation exhibited the smallest size at third to fifth instar larvae among the three generations., Apr. 1994, 16, 2, 65, 74, Scientific journal
  • Refereed, JOURNAL OF NATURAL HISTORY, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, MATING-BEHAVIOR AND SEXUAL SELECTION IN THE AFRICAN BALL-ROLLING SCARAB KHEPHER-PLATYNOTUS (BATES) (COLEOPTERA, SCARABAEIDAE), H SATO; K HIRAMATSU, Mating behaviour of the ball-rolling dung beetle Kheper platynotus (Bates), adults of which are active in rainy seasons, was studied in southeastern Kenya. Male mating behaviour changed with the progression of the rainy season. In the early season when females made food balls, males attempted forced copulation with wandering and food-ball-making females on dung mounds. As the season progressed, females made brood balls, and males attempted to pair off with such females, as well as attempting forced copulation with wandering and food-ball-making females. A male who paired off with a brood-ball-making female cooperated with the female to make the ball. The male usually copulate after burying the ball (pre-copulatory mate guarding), but sometimes copulatory during ball-making In the latter case the male usually showed post-copulatory mate guarding until ball burial, but sometimes left soon after copulation. In the late season, when available females decreased because of maternal care in the underground nests, males started to make food balls to secure food resources for survival until the next rainy season. Male mate guarding involving ball-making, -rolling and -burying seemed to function to raise paternity confidence, but such assistance seemed to be less beneficial to females. Fights frequently occurred between guarding and intruding males on brood balls. Both residency and relative body sizes of fighters were important asymmetries influencing contest outcome. This seemed to result in not active but passive mate choice by brood-ball-making females., May 1993, 27, 3, 657, 668, Scientific journal
  • Refereed, Japanese Journal of Entomoloty, 東京昆蟲學會, Tischeria leafminers (Lepidoptera, Tischeriidae) on deciduous oaks from Japan, SATO Hiroaki; Sato H, Three Japanese species of Tischeria (Lepidoptera, Tischeriidae) on deciduous oaks are described. Of these, T. naraensis SATO is new to science and T. decidua WOCKE is newly recorded from Japan. The female of T. quercifolia KUROKO, hitherto unknown, is also described., 1993, 61, 3, 547-556, 556
  • Refereed, ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, BLACKWELL SCIENCE LTD, DIFFERENTIAL RESOURCE UTILIZATION AND COOCCURRENCE OF LEAF MINERS ON OAK (QUERCUS-DENTATA), H SATO, 1. Spatial, temporal, and dietary differences in resource utilization and patterns of interspecific association on leaves were investigated for dominant and common leaf-mining species on an oak species, Quercus dentata Thunb., in Hokkaido, northern Japan. 2. Leaf miners were divided into two groups according to leaf tissues used for food: upper-layer-feeders which consume the palisade parenchymatous layer (Stigmella spp. and tenthredinid sp.), and full-depth-feeders which consume spongy and palisade parenchymatous layers (Phyllonorycter leucocorona (Kumata), P.similis Kumata, and Caloptilia sapporella (Matsumura)). 3. Differences in the position of mines on leaves were found among species: mines of P.similis were distributed more frequently in the middle section of leaves, whereas those of the remaining species were concentrated in the basal section. 4. Leaf size preference differed between species: C.sapporella and tenthredinid sp. tended to select larger leaves more frequently than did the other species. 5. Phenological differentiation was found among species: C.sapporella appeared earliest, followed by P.similis, P.leucocorona and a tenthredinid sp., and then Stigmella spp. 6. Each species showed a highly clumped distribution among leaves. Leaf miners of some species pairs co-occurred on leaves more frequently than expected by chance., Feb. 1991, 16, 1, 105, 113, Scientific journal
  • Refereed, Ecological Research, Ecological Society of Japan, Parasitoid complexes of lepidopteran leaf miners on oaks (Quercus dentata and Quercus mongolica) in Hokkaido, Japan, SATO Hiroaki; Sato H, 1990, 5, 1, 1, 8
  • Refereed, Konty(]J1169[), Tokyo, 東京昆蟲學會, Further observations on the nesting behaviour of a subsocial ball-rolling scarab, Kheper aegyptiorum, SATO Hiroaki; Sato H; Imamori M, The nesting behaviour of an African ball-rolling scarab, Kheper aegyptiorum (LATREILLE), was re-examined in the Tsavo West National Park, east Kenya. The pair formation was observed on the ball which was constructed by a male alone. Dung balls, which a male rolled and a female rode on, were found to be used as nuptial balls (provision for the female) as well as brood balls (provision for larvae). A female had the ability to perform the whole process of nidification (ball-making, ball-rolling, ball-burying, and brood-pear-constructing) by herself. Even after completing brood pears, the female remained in the nest to care for them. The reproductive behaviour of K. aegyptiorum was compared to that of another African ball-roller, K. platynotus (BATES)., 1988, 56, 4, 4, 878
  • Refereed, Ecological Research, Springer-Verlag, Bionomics of Phyllonorycter (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) on Quercus. II. Effects of ants, Hiroaki Sato; Seigo Higashi, The effects of ants on a population of Phyllonorycter leaf miners were observed in an oak chaparral on the Ishikari Coast. The density of ant nests was higher at the chaparral's edge than in the interior, while the density of mines was lower at the edge than in the interior. The effects of ant predation were examined in a comparison between treated ant-free trees and untreated ant-rich trees. Percentages of the torn mines observed were higher on the ant-rich trees than on the ant-free trees, whereas the mortality due to parasitoids was higher on the ant-free trees than on the ant-rich trees. This shows that ants greatly contributed to the mortality of leaf miners. © 1987 Ecological Society of Japan., Apr. 1987, 2, 1, 53, 60, Scientific journal, 10.1007/BF02348619
  • Refereed, Konty(]J1169[), Tokyo, 東京昆蟲學會, Bionomics of Phyllonorycter (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) on Quercus. I. Mortality in winter, SATO Hiroaki; Sato H, Mortality rates of Phyllonorycter similis (KUMATA) and P. leucocorona (KUMATA) on Quercus dentata were assessed in two overwintering sites : on the tree and under the snow. The importance of each mortal factor for P. similis varied between the two overwintering sites, while parasitism was always principal factor for P. leucocorona. In both Phyllonorycter species, total mortalities were not different between the overwintering sites, because mortal factors were complementary to each other., 1986, 54, 4, 4, 572
  • Refereed, Konty(]J1169[), Tokyo, 東京昆蟲學會, Production of two brood pears from onedung ball in an African ball-roller, Scarabaeus aegyptiorum (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), SATO Hiroaki; Sato H; Imamori, Nesting behaviour of Scarabaeus (Kheper) aegyptiorum LATREILLE was described. Unlike general tendency in Scarabaeus, a ball worked by a malefemale pair of S. aegyptiorum was not used as nuptial ball but as a brood ball. The nidification of this species was also singular among ball-rolling Scarabaeinae in respect that the brood ball buried underground was transformed into two brood pears, on each of which one egg was laid. This suggests that the nidification of ballrolling Scarabaeinae may be more diversified than is supposed., 1986, 54, 3, 3, 385
  • Refereed, Konty(]J1169[), Tokyo, 東京昆蟲學會, Nidification of an African ball-rolling scarab, Scarabaeus platynotus Bates (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), SATO Hiroaki; Sato H; Imamori M, We observed the nidification behaviour of an African ball-roller, Scarabaeus (Kheper) platynotus, in the Tsavo West National Park, eastern Kenya. A dung ball worked by a male-female pair was not for a nuptial ball but always for a brood ball. One brood ball was transformed into two brood pears by a female in the nest. Copulations had already finished in a dung source before or soon after completing the ball construction., 1986, 54, 2, 2, 207
  • Refereed, Japanese Journal of Ecology, Myrmecofaunal changes since the 1977-78 eruptions on Mt. Usu, SATO Hiroaki; Higashi S; Sato H; Sugawara H; Fukuda H, 1985, 35, 469-475, 479
  • Refereed, ECOSPHERE, WILEY, Differential butterfly performance on host plant variants from populations under intense vs. low mammalian herbivory, Tetsuo Kohyama; Chika Horikawa; Shizuka Kawai; Megumi Shikata; Teiko Kato; Hiroaki Sato, Evolutionary interactions between a pair of species can be modified by the presence of another species that interacts with either or both species. However, only a few studies have demonstrated such complex interactions. Here, we report a case where a population of the red admiral butterfly (Vanessa indica) is assumed to change fitness traits in response to an evolutionary change in its major host plant, the Japanese stinging nettle (Urtica thunbergiana), caused by intense browsing pressure from sika deer (Cervus nippon). Nara Park (NP) in Japan has been home to several hundred protected sika deer for approximately 1200 yr, and their intense browsing pressure is assumed to have selected for heavily haired nettles that are more resistant to deer browsing compared to normal lightly haired nettles occurring in areas with low densities of sika deer. We found that the water and nitrogen contents of leaves are lower and the specific leaf mass is higher in heavily haired nettles at NP compared to the lightly haired nettles at the Takatori Castle Site (TCS) 30 km south of NP. Feeding experiments showed that V. indica larvae from NP reared on heavily haired nettles reach a greater adult body mass and relative abdomen mass than those from TCS, suggesting the possibility that the NP V. indica population has adapted to the heavily haired, nutritionally poorer variant. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene of V. indica from NP and nearby locations including TCS found one haplotype exclusive to NP, suggesting that movement of this butterfly is somewhat restricted. However, analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers showed no genetic differentiation between the seven V. indica populations including the NP and TCS populations. These results suggest that adaptation of the NP population to the heavily haired nettle occurred in a relatively short period. Our study demonstrates a rare example of an indirect evolutionary impact of one herbivore (sika deer) on another herbivore (red admiral butterfly) through an evolutionary change in their shared food plant (Japanese nettle)., Jan. 2017, 8, 1, Scientific journal, 10.1002/ecs2.1568


  • Not Refereed, 誘蛾灯, 日本産Niditinea属(ヒロズコガ科)3種の識別形質, SATO Hiroaki, Nov. 2016, 226, 99-101
  • Not Refereed, 誘蛾燈, 岐阜県のフモトミズナラに寄生する蛾, SATO Hiroaki, Mar. 2015, 219, 13-22
  • Not Refereed, 昆虫と自然, 奈良公園におけるシカ-植物-昆虫の相互作用, SATO Hiroaki, Mar. 2012, 47, 4, 4-7
  • Not Refereed, 日本森林学会誌, 奈良県大台ヶ原においてニホンジカの増加がもたらした糞虫群集の多様性の低下., SATO Hiroaki, Jun. 2008, 90, 315-320
  • Not Refereed, ENVIRONMENTAL ENTOMOLOGY, ENTOMOL SOC AMER, Structure and function of parasitoid assemblages associated with Phyllonorycter leafminers (Lepidoptera : Gracillariidae) on deciduous oaks in Japan, H Sato; Y Okabayashi; K Kamijo, Parasitoid assemblages associated with Phyllonorycter spp. leafminers (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) were examined on six deciduous oak species (Quercus, Fagaceae) in Japan to understand how host leafminers, host food plants, and geographic location influence the structure and function of parasitoid assemblages. The parasitoid assemblages on five of the six oak species showed similar species richness (18-20 spp.), regardless of the number of host leafminer species and the abundance of hosts. Species composition was influenced by geographic location as well as host food oaks, and to a lesser extent by the leafminers. The assemblages varied in guild structure but showed nearly equal ratios of koinobiont/idiobiont species. The ratio was almost the same as that in Great Britain. These results suggest that the well-known argument that parasitoid communities are mostly influenced by host food plants is not universal, and that parasitoid assemblages may be organized with a balance between numbers of koinobiont and idiobiont species regardless of species richness, species composition, or geographic location. Total rate of parasitism did not correlate with the number of parasitoid species or the evenness of the assemblage. This implies that the host-parasitoid system is not under top-down control., Dec. 2002, 31, 6, 1052, 1061
  • Not Refereed, AMBIO, ROYAL SWEDISH ACAD SCIENCES, Follow-up survey of environmental impacts of the Rwandan refugees on eastern D. R. Congo, H Sato; K Yasui; K Byamana, Mar. 2000, 29, 2, 122, 123
  • Not Refereed, JAPANESE JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, The Ecological Society of Japan, 安定化理論の今後-室内実験と野外調査、数理理論の共同のもとに-, SATO Hiroaki, 1996, 46, 3, 309-312, 312, 10.18960/seitai.46.3_309
  • Not Refereed, Journal of African Studies, Japan Association for African Studies, ケニアに生息する大型タマオシコガネKheper platynotus とKheper aegyptiorum の繁殖行動, SATO Hiroaki, The nesting behaviour of African ball-rolling scarabs, Kheper platynotus (Bates) and K. aegyptiorum (Latreille), was observed in the Tsavo West National Park, east Kenya. Both species produce multiple brood pears from one buried dung ball, and take care of brood. Such a pattern of nidification has never been known in any other ball-rollers. The way of brood care is singular in that the mother beetle scrapes the upper part of the pear where larval excrement is accumulated.
    In K. platynotus one to four pears are produced from a ball ranging from 5.2 to 9.0cm in diameter, and in K. aegyptiorum one or two pears from a ball ranging from 3.8 to 4.7cm. In the former species, the number of pears produced depends on the size of ball which is independent of the size of ball-maker.
    Reproductive behaviour of male has been compared between K. platynotus and K. aegyptiorum. The former male attempts to copulate with a female above ground; seems not to be the initiator of the brood-ball construction; performs hind-leg bending behaviour on the dung pad without the function of attracting females; and makes no nuptial ball. The latter male does not attempt to copulate with a female above ground; to be the initiator of the brood-ball construction; performs hind-leg bending behaviour on the ball to attract females; and makes a nuptial ball., 1987, 32, 32, 1-17, 17, 10.11619/africa1964.1988.1
  • Not Refereed, Environmental Science, Hokkaido, Hokkaido University, Nocturnal flight activity of moths, SATO Hiroaki; Sato H; Higashi S; Fukuda H, Nocturnal flight activity of macrolepidopterous moths was observed in Nopporo Forest Park and on Mt. Usu, Hokkaido, northern Japan. Air temperature seemed to be one of the crucial factors controlling their flight activity, because the number of flying moths rapidly declined at about 10℃ or less in the autumn and at about 5℃ or less in early winter. The flight activity of many species could be grouped into five types on the basis of full-flight time: pre-midnight, midnight, post-midnight, bimodal, and peakless types, though some species showed seasonally or sexually different flight patterns. Although congeneric species tended to have similar flight patterns, the flight activity within each family was not always homogenous. As suggested by Miyata (1983) concerning the moths on Kyushu Island, southern Japan, the ratio of bimodal and peakless types was higher in openland moths than in forest ones., 1986, 9, 1, 59-68, 68
  • Not Refereed, Environmental Science, Hokkaido, Hokkaido University, Ground beetles on Mt. Usu six years after the 1977-78 eruptions, SATO Hiroaki; Kuranishi RB; Higashi S; Sato H; Fukuda H, A survey was made of the ground beetles on and around Mt. Usu which had suffered vegetational damage from volcanic eruptions in 1977-78. A total of 2,485 specimens of 29 species were collected, primarily Silpha perforata venatoria, Pterostichus thunbergi, Chlaenius pallipes and Pterostichus subovatus. On the somma surrounding O-usu, Polygonum sachalinense communities provided the appropriate habitat for many species including forest species such as Pterostichus subovatus and Leptocarabus opaculus in the spring and summer, though these species nearly disappeared in the autumn when herbs were defoliated. In the grasslands and sometimes even in the bare ground around Ko-usu, dead trees blown down by the latest eruptions offered a refuge for the forest species., 1986, 9, 1, 69-78, 78
  • Not Refereed, Environmental Science, Hokkaido, Hokkaido University, Faunal makeup of macrolepidopterous moths in Nopporo Forest Park, Hokkaido, northern Japan, with some related notes, SATO Hiroaki; Sato H; Fukuda H, Macrolepidopterous moths were collected in Nopporo Forest Park to disclose the faunal makeup. By combining this survey with other from Nopporo, 595 species were recorded, compriping of roughly 45% of all species discovered in Hokkaido to date. The seasonal fluctuations of a species diversity were bimodal, peaking in August and November. The data obtained had a good correlation to both lognormal and logseries distributions among various species-abundance models. In summer, it was found that specialistic feeders dominated over generalistic feeders. However, in autumn, generalistic feeders dominated, most likely because low temperature shortened hours for seeking host plants on which to lay eggs., 1985, 8, 1, 93-120, 120
  • Not Refereed, Environmental Science, Hokkaido, Macrolepidopterous moth fauna on a volcano Mt. Usu six years after the 1977-78 eruptions, SATO Hiroaki; Sato H; Okazaki K; Fukuda H, 1985, 8, 121-139, 139

Books etc

  • African Entomology, 海游舎, SATO Hiroaki, 編集, Mar. 2019, 2-20, 297-320, Not Refereed, 9784905930655
  • 招かれない虫たちの話, 東海大学出版部, SATO Hiroaki, 編集, Mar. 2017, xiii-xiv, 205-218, Not Refereed
  • アフリカ学事典, 昭和堂, SATO Hiroaki, 分担, Jun. 2014, 440-443, Not Refereed
  • パワー・エコロジー, 海游舎, SATO Hiroaki, 編集, Mar. 2013, 283-305, Not Refereed
  • 日本の鱗翅類―系統と多様性, 東海大学出版会, SATO Hiroaki, 分担, Feb. 2011, 98-107, 199-207, 126-132, 144-161, 199-207, 552-553, 558-559, 568-573, Not Refereed
  • 絵かき虫の生物学, 北隆館, SATO Hiroaki, 分担, Jan. 2011, 157-170, Not Refereed
  • 大台ヶ原の自然史:森の中のシカをめぐる生物間相互作用, 東海大学出版会, SATO Hiroaki, 分担, Jul. 2009, 108-116, 199-207, Not Refereed
  • Invitation to African Entomology, Kyoto University Press, SATO Hiroaki; Toshitaka HIDAKA, 分担, Mar. 2007, 33-47, Not Refereed
  • Ethnic Natural History, 八坂書房, SATO Hiroaki, 分担, Aug. 2003, 270-272, Not Refereed
  • 群集生態学の現在, 京都大学学術出版会, SATO Hiroaki, 編集, Mar. 2001, 3-21, Not Refereed
  • 環境Eco選書 チョウの行動生態学, 北隆館, 佐藤宏明; 甲山哲生, シカ-イラクサ-アカタテハの進化的相互作用, Mar. 2022


  • Invited oral presentation, 19 Mar. 2022, 19 Mar. 2022
  • SATO Hiroaki, 日本昆虫学会第75回大会, フクロウ巣内の蛾類相と羽毛トラップで得られた蛾類相の比較, Sep. 2015, False
  • SATO Hiroaki, 日本粉体工業技術協会造粒分科会第101回技術討論会, タマオシコガネの粒造り, Mar. 2014, 日本粉体工業技術協会造粒分科会, 伊東市, False
  • SATO Hiroaki, 日本応用動物昆虫学会第58回大会, イラクサの刺毛はシカに対する防御には役立つが,昆虫に対しては役立たない, Mar. 2014, 日本応用動物昆虫学会, 高知, False
  • SATO Hiroaki, 日本昆虫学会第72回大会公募シンポジウム「シカが昆虫や環境に及ぼす影響」, 奈良公園においてシカの過剰な増加がもたらす植物と昆虫の特異な関係, Sep. 2012, 矢後勝也, 東京都町田市 玉川大学, False

Research Projects

  • 2001, 2007, 糞虫の群集生態学, 0, 0, 0, 大台ヶ原にてニホンジカの増加にともなうミヤコザサ草地の拡大が糞虫群集に与える影響を調査する一方,奈良県御杖村にて新たに造成された放牧地にて糞虫群集の構造化過程を調査した。, Competitive research funding
  • 2001, 2007, Community ecology of dung beetles, 0, 0, 0, Competitive research funding
  • 2002, 動物と植物の相互作用, 科学研究費補助金, 0, 0, 0, ニホンジカの被食に対し植物はさまざまな生理・形態的応答を示す。奈良公園においてはシカの強い被食により、イラクサは矮小化すると共に高い刺毛密度を有している。この形態的変化の進化生態学的意義を追究している。, Competitive research funding
  • 2002, Interations Between Animals and Plants, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 0, 0, 0, Competitive research funding
  • 1987, 潜葉性小蛾類の生態学及び分類学的研究, 科学研究費補助金, 0, 0, 0, ムモンハモグリガ科、モグリチビガ科、ホソガ科をおもな対象とし、分類、生態、およびその寄生蜂群集を研究している。, Competitive research funding
  • 1987, Ecological and Taxonomic Studies of Leafminers, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 0, 0, 0, Competitive research funding
  • 植物におけるヒスタミンの生合成の制御機構の解明, 0, 0, 0, Competitive research funding
  • 落葉機構の解明, 0, 0, 0, Competitive research funding

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