Researchers Database

Kawano-Yamashita Emi

    Faculty Division of Natural Sciences Research Group of Biological Sciences Associate Professor
Last Updated :2021/10/20



  • Ph.D., Nara Women's University

Research Areas

  • Life sciences, Animals: biochemistry, physiology, behavioral science

Research Experience

  • Apr. 2017, Nara Women's University, Faculty of Science Department of Chemistry, Biology, and Environmental Science, 助教
  • Oct. 2014 Mar. - 2017, 日本学術振興会特別研究員(RPD)
  • Apr. 2010 Sep. - 2014, 日本学術振興会特別研究員(PD)
  • Apr. 2007 Mar. - 2010, 大阪市立大学大学院 理学研究科 博士研究員
  • Apr. 2006 Mar. - 2007, 日本学術振興会特別研究員(PD)
  • Apr. 2005 Mar. - 2006, 日本学術振興会特別研究員(DC2)


  • Apr. 2003, Mar. - 2006, Nara Women's University, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, 博士後期課程 共生自然科学専攻, Japan
  • Apr. 2001, Mar. - 2003, Nara Women's University, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, 博士前期課程 生物科学専攻, Japan
  • Apr. 1997, Mar. - 2001, Nara Women's University, Faculty of Science, 生物科学科, Japan


  • 大阪市立大学女性研究者博士研究員奨励賞[岡村賞], Nov. 2014, JPN
  • 日本比較生理性化学会 吉田奨励賞, Jul. 2013, JPN

Published Papers

  • The non-visual opsins expressed in deep brain neurons projecting to the retina in lampreys.

    Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Seiji Wada; Tomoka Saito; Tomohiro Sugihara; Satoshi Tamotsu; Akihisa Terakita

    In lower vertebrates, brain photoreceptor cells express vertebrate-specific non-visual opsins. We previously revealed that a pineal-related organ-specific opsin, parapinopsin, is UV-sensitive and allows pineal wavelength discrimination in lampreys and teleost. The Australian pouched lamprey was recently reported as having two parapinopsin-related genes. We demonstrate that a parapinopsin-like opsin from the Japanese river lamprey exhibits different molecular properties and distribution than parapinopsin. This opsin activates Gi-type G protein in a mammalian cell culture assay in a light-dependent manner. Heterologous action spectroscopy revealed that the opsin forms a violet to blue-sensitive pigment. Interestingly, the opsin is co-localised with green-sensitive P-opsin in the cells of the M5 nucleus of Schober (M5NS) in the mesencephalon of the river and brook lamprey. Some opsins-containing cells of the river lamprey have cilia and others an axon projecting to the retina. The opsins of the brook lamprey are co-localised in the cilia of centrifugal neurons projecting to the retina, suggesting that cells expressing the parapinopsin-like opsin and P-opsin are sensitive to violet to green light. Moreover, we found neural connections between M5NS cells expressing the opsins and the retina. These findings suggest that the retinal activity might be modulated by brain photoreception., 15 Jun. 2020, Scientific reports, 10 (1), 9669 - 9669, True, doi;pubmed;pmc

    Scientific journal

  • Functional identification of an opsin kinase underlying inactivation of the pineal bistable opsin parapinopsin in zebrafish.

    Baoguo Shen; Seiji Wada; Haruka Nishioka; Takashi Nagata; Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Akihisa Terakita

    In the pineal organ of zebrafish larvae, the bistable opsin parapinopsin alone generates color opponency between UV and visible light. Our previous study suggested that dark inactivation of the parapinopsin photoproduct, which activates G-proteins, is important for the regulation of the amount of the photoproduct. In turn, the photoproduct is responsible for visible light sensitivity in color opponency. Here, we found that an opsin kinase or a G-protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) is involved in inactivation of the active photoproduct of parapinopsin in the pineal photoreceptor cells of zebrafish larvae. We investigated inactivation of the photoproduct in the parapinopsin cells of various knockdown larvae by measuring the light responses of the cells using calcium imaging. We found that GRK7a knockdown slowed recovery of the response of parapinopsin photoreceptor cells, whereas GRK1b knockdown or GRK7b knockdown did not have a remarkable effect, suggesting that GRK7a, a cone-type GRK, is mainly responsible for inactivation of the parapinopsin photoproduct in zebrafish larvae. We also observed a similar knockdown effect on the response of the parapinopsin photoreceptor cells of mutant larvae expressing the opsin SWS1, a UV-sensitive cone opsin, instead of parapinopsin, suggesting that the parapinopsin photoproduct was inactivated in a way similar to that described for cone opsins. We confirmed the immunohistochemical distribution of GRK7a in parapinopsin photoreceptor cells by comparing the immunoreactivity to GRK7 in GRK7a-knockdown and control larvae. These findings suggest that in pineal photoreceptor cells, the cone opsin kinase GRK7a contributes greatly to the inactivation of parapinopsin, which underlies pineal color opponency., 12 Feb. 2021, Zoological letters, 7 (1), 1 - 1, True, doi;pubmed;pmc

    Scientific journal

  • Color opponency with a single kind of bistable opsin in the zebrafish pineal organ

    Wada Seiji; Shen Baoguo; Kawano-Yamashita Emi; Nagata Takashi; Hibi Masahiko; Tamotsu Satoshi; Koyanagi Mitsumasa; Terakita Akihisa

    30 Oct. 2018, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 115 (44), 11310 - 11315, doi;pubmed;web_of_science

  • Vertebrate bistable pigment parapinopsin: Implications for emergence of visual signaling and neofunctionalization of non-visual pigment

    Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Seiji Wada; Akihisa Terakita

    Opsins are light-sensor proteins, each absorbing a specific wavelength of light. This, in turn, drives a specific G protein-mediated phototransduction cascade, leading to a photoreceptor cell response. Recent genome projects have revealed an unexpectedly large number of opsin genes for vision and non-visual photoreception in various animals. However, the significance of this multiplicity of opsins remains largely unknown, except for that of cone visual opsins, which are diversified with respect to spectral sensitivity to achieve vertebrate color vision. Here, an implication of multiplicity is discussed, with focus on an ultraviolet-sensitive non-visual opsin-parapinopsin-that underlies pineal wavelength discrimination in lower vertebrates. Parapinopsins are phylogenetically close to vertebrate visual opsins, which have bleaching properties, but interestingly, parapinopsins are bleach-resistant bistable pigments, which photo-convert to stable photoproducts that revert to their original dark state by subsequent light absorption, similar to invertebrate rhodopsins. The unique characteristics of parapinopsin as an evolutionary intermediate between bistable and bleaching pigments provide insight into the evolutionary transition between signaling molecules that interact with two types of opsin-based pigments. Furthermore, the parapinopsin gene was duplicated in the teleost lineage and the spectral sensitivities of the duplicated parapinopsins were different from each other. On the basis of these results, together with the histochemical findings of parapinopsin, a plausible link between the diversification of a non-visual opsin parapinopsin and diverse pineal functions, wavelength discrimination, and melatonin secretion, implying why multiple opsins exist in animals, is proposed., Frontiers Media S. A, 11 Apr. 2017, Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 5 (23), doi

  • Activation of transducin by bistable pigment parapinopsin in the pineal organ of lower vertebrates

    Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Seiji Wada; Hisao Tsukamoto; Takashi Nagata; Akihisa Terakita

    Pineal organs of lower vertebrates contain several kinds of photosensitive molecules, opsins that are suggested to be involved in different light-regulated physiological functions. We previously reported that parapinopsin is an ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive opsin that underlies hyperpolarization of the pineal photoreceptor cells of lower vertebrates to achieve pineal wavelength discrimination. Although, parapinopsin is phylogenetically close to vertebrate visual opsins, it exhibits a property similar to invertebrate visual opsins and melanopsin: the photoproduct of parapinopsin is stable and reverts to the original dark states, demonstrating the nature of bistable pigments. Therefore, it is of evolutionary interest to identify a phototransduction cascade driven by parapinopsin and to compare it with that in vertebrate visual cells. Here, we showed that parapinopsin is coupled to vertebrate visual G protein transducin in the pufferfish, zebrafish, and lamprey pineal organs. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that parapinopsins activated transducin in vitro in a light-dependent manner, similar to vertebrate visual opsins. Interestingly, transducin activation by parapinopsin was provoked and terminated by UV- and subsequent orange-lights irradiations, respectively, due to the bistable nature of parapinopsin, which could contribute to a wavelength-dependent control of a second messenger level in the cell as a unique optogenetic tool. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that parapinopsin was colocalized with Gt2 in the teleost, which possesses rod and cone types of transducin, Gt1, and Gt2. On the other hand, in the lamprey, which does not possess the Gt2 gene, in situ hybridization suggested that parapinopsin- expressing photoreceptor cells contained Gt1 type transducin GtS, indicating that lamprey parapinopsin may use GtS in place of Gt2. Because it is widely accepted that vertebrate visual opsins having a bleaching nature have evolved from non-bleaching opsins similar to parapinopsin, these results implied that ancestral bistable opsins might acquire coupling to the transducin-mediated cascade and achieve light-dependent hyperpolarizing response of the photoreceptor cells., Public Library of Science, 22 Oct. 2015, PLoS ONE, 10 (10), e0141280, doi;pubmed

    Scientific journal

  • Diversification of non-visual photopigment parapinopsin in spectral sensitivity for diverse pineal functions

    Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Seiji Wada; Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Yuichiro Hara; Shigehiro Kuraku; Shigeaki Kosaka; Koichi Kawakami; Satoshi Tamotsu; Hisao Tsukamoto; Yoshinori Shichida; Akihisa Terakita

    Background: Recent genome projects of various animals have uncovered an unexpectedly large number of opsin genes, which encode protein moieties of photoreceptor molecules, in most animals. In visual systems, the biological meanings of this diversification are clear multiple types of visual opsins with different spectral sensitivities are responsible for color vision. However, the significance of the diversification of non-visual opsins remains uncertain, in spite of the importance of understanding the molecular mechanism and evolution of varied non-visual photoreceptions. Results: Here, we investigated the diversification of the pineal photopigment parapinopsin, which serves as the UV-sensitive photopigment for the pineal wavelength discrimination in the lamprey, linking it with other pineal photoreception. Spectroscopic analyses of the recombinant pigments of the two teleost parapinopsins PP1 and PP2 revealed that PP1 is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin, but PP2 is a blue-sensitive pigment, with an absorption maximum at 460-480 nm, showing the diversification of non-visual pigment with respect to spectral sensitivity. We also found that PP1 and PP2 exhibit mutually exclusive expressions in the pineal organs of three teleost species. By using transgenic zebrafish in which these parapinopsin-expressing cells are labeled, we found that PP1-expressing cells basically possess neuronal processes, which is consistent with their involvement in wavelength discrimination. Interestingly, however, PP2-expressing cells rarely possess neuronal processes, raising the possibility that PP2 could be involved in non-neural responses rather than neural responses. Furthermore, we found that PP2-expressing cells contain serotonin and aanat2, the key enzyme involved in melatonin synthesis from serotonin, whereas PP1-expressing cells do not contain either, suggesting that blue-sensitive PP2 is instead involved in light-regulation of melatonin secretion. Conclusions: In this paper, we have clearly shown the different molecular properties of duplicated non-visual opsins by demonstrating the diversification of parapinopsin with respect to spectral sensitivity. Moreover, we have shown a plausible link between the diversification and its physiological impact by discovering a strong candidate for the underlying pigment in light-regulated melatonin secretion in zebrafish the diversification could generate a new contribution of parapinopsin to pineal photoreception. Current findings could also provide an opportunity to understand the "color" preference of non-visual photoreception., BioMed Central Ltd., 15 Sep. 2015, BMC Biology, 13 (1), doi;pubmed

    Scientific journal

  • Distribution of mammalian-like melanopsin in cyclostome retinas exhibiting a different extent of visual functions

    Lanfang Sun; Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Takashi Nagata; Hisao Tsukamoto; Yuji Furutani; Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Akihisa Terakita

    Mammals contain 1 melanopsin (Opn4) gene that is expressed in a subset of retinal ganglion cells to serve as a photopigment involved in non-image-forming vision such as photoentrainment of circadian rhythms. In contrast, most nonmammalian vertebrates possess multiple melanopsins that are distributed in various types of retinal cells however, their functions remain unclear. We previously found that the lamprey has only 1 type of mammalian-like melanopsin gene, which is similar to that observed in mammals. Here we investigated the molecular properties and localization of melanopsin in the lamprey and other cyclostome hagfish retinas, which contribute to visual functions including image-forming vision and mainly to non-image-forming vision, respectively. We isolated 1 type of mammalian-like melanopsin cDNA from the eyes of each species. We showed that the recombinant lamprey melanopsin was a blue light-sensitive pigment and that both the lamprey and hagfish melanopsins caused light-dependent increases in calcium ion concentration in cultured cells in a manner that was similar to that observed for mammalian melanopsins. We observed that melanopsin was distributed in several types of retinal cells, including horizontal cells and ganglion cells, in the lamprey retina, despite the existence of only 1 melanopsin gene in the lamprey. In contrast, melanopsin was almost specifically distributed to retinal ganglion cells in the hagfish retina. Furthermore, we found that the melanopsin-expressing horizontal cells connected to the rhodopsin-containing short photoreceptor cells in the lamprey. Taken together, our findings suggest that in cyclostomes, the global distribution of melanopsin in retinal cells might not be related to the melanopsin gene number but to the extent of retinal contribution to visual function., Public Library of Science, 24 Sep. 2014, PLoS ONE, 9 (9), e108209, doi;pubmed

    Scientific journal

  • Expression of UV-sensitive parapinopsin in the iguana parietal eyes and its implication in UV-sensitivity in vertebrate pineal-related organs

    Seiji Wada; Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Akihisa Terakita

    The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identification of parapinopsin in the reptile lineage and show its expression in the parietal eye of the green iguana. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that iguana parapinopsin is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific to parapinopsin and parietopsin, a parietal eye green-sensitive pigment, revealed that parapinopsin and parietopsin are colocalized in the outer segments of the parietal eye photoreceptor cells in iguanas. These results strongly suggest that parapinopsin underlies the wavelength discrimination involving UV reception in the iguana parietal eye. The current findings support the idea that parapinopsin is a common photopigment underlying the UV-sensitivity in wavelength discrimination of the pineal-related organs found from lampreys to reptiles. © 2012 Wada et al., 14 Jun. 2012, PLoS ONE, 7 (6), e39003, doi;pubmed

    Scientific journal

  • Beta-arrestin functionally regulates the non-bleaching pigment parapinopsin in lamprey pineal

    Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Yoshinori Shichida; Tadashi Oishi; Satoshi Tamotsu; Akihisa Terakita

    The light response of vertebrate visual cells is achieved by light-sensing proteins such as opsin-based pigments as well as signal transduction proteins, including visual arrestin. Previous studies have indicated that the pineal pigment parapinopsin has evolutionally and physiologically important characteristics. Parapinopsin is phylogenetically related to vertebrate visual pigments. However, unlike the photoproduct of the visual pigment rhodopsin, which is unstable, dissociating from its chromophore and bleaching, the parapinopsin photoproduct is stable and does not release its chromophore. Here, we investigated arrestin, which regulates parapinopsin signaling, in the lamprey pineal organ, where parapinopsin and rhodopsin are localized to distinct photoreceptor cells. We found that beta-arrestin, which binds to stimulated G proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs) other than opsin-based pigments, was localized to parapinopsin-containing cells. This result stands in contrast to the localization of visual arrestin in rhodopsin-containing cells. Beta-arrestin bound to cultured cell membranes containing parapinopsin light-dependently and translocated to the outer segments of pineal parapinopsincontaining cells, suggesting that beta-arrestin binds to parapinopsin to arrest parapinopsin signaling. Interestingly, betaarrestin colocalized with parapinopsin in the granules of the parapinopsin-expressing cell bodies under light illumination. Because beta-arrestin, which is a mediator of clathrin-mediated GPCR internalization, also served as a mediator of parapinopsin internalization in cultured cells, these results suggest that the granules were generated light-dependently by beta-arrestin-mediated internalization of parapinopsins from the outer segments. Therefore, our findings imply that betaarrestin- mediated internalization is responsible for eliminating the stable photoproduct and restoring cell conditions to the original dark state. Taken together with a previous finding that the bleaching pigment evolved from a non-bleaching pigment, vertebrate visual arrestin may have evolved from a "beta-like" arrestin by losing its clathrin-binding domain and its function as an internalization mediator. Such changes would have followed the evolution of vertebrate visual pigments, which generate unstable photoproducts that independently decay by chromophore dissociation. © 2011 Kawano-Yamashita et al., 2011, PLoS ONE, 6 (1), e16402, doi;pubmed

    Scientific journal

  • Immunohistochemical characterization of a parapinopsin-containing photoreceptor cell involved in the ultraviolet/green discrimination in the pineal organ of the river lamprey Lethenteron japonicum

    Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Akihisa Terakita; Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Yoshinori Shichida; Tadashi Oishi; Satoshi Tamotsu

    In the pineal organ, two types of ganglion cell exhibit antagonistic chromatic responses to UV and green light, and achromatic responses to visible light. In this study, we histologically characterized UV-sensitive photoreceptor cells that contain a unique non-visual UV pigment, lamprey parapinopsin, in order to elucidate the neural network that is associated with antagonistic chromatic responses. These characteristics were compared with those of lamprey rhodopsin-containing cells, most of which are involved in achromatic responses. RT-PCR analysis revealed that lamprey parapinopsin was expressed in the pineal organ but not in the retina, unlike lamprey rhodopsin, which was expressed in both. Lamprey parapinopsin and lamprey rhodopsin were immunohistochemically localized in the dorsal and ventral regions of the pineal organ, respectively. The two pigments were localized in distinct photoreceptor cells throughout the pineal organ, namely the dorsal and ventral regions as well as the peripheral region, which corresponds to the dorso-ventral border region. The ratio of the number of lamprey parapinopsin-containing cells to lamprey rhodopsin-containing cells around the peripheral region was higher than in the central region. Electron-microscopic analysis revealed that lamprey parapinopsin-containing dorsal cells have outer segments and synaptic ribbons similar to those of ventral photoreceptor cells. However, unlike lamprey rhodopsin-containing cells, lamprey parapinopsin-containing cells connected with each other in a wide area of dorsal and peripheral portions and made direct contact with ganglion cells, mainly in the peripheral portion. These results suggest that UV light information captured by lamprey parapinopsin-containing photoreceptor cells is converged and directly transmitted to chromatic-type ganglion cells in the peripheral region to generate antagonistic chromatic responses., COMPANY OF BIOLOGISTS LTD, Nov. 2007, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 210 (21), 3821 - 3829, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Neural interaction of gonadotropin-regulating hormone immunoreactive neurons and the suprachiasmatic nucleus with the paraventricular organ in the Japanese grass lizard (Takydromus Tachydromoides)

    E Kawano; Y Takahata; T Oishi; K Ukena; K Tsutsui; S Tamotsu

    Our previous study demonstrated that the paraventricular organ (PVO) in the hypothalamus of the Japanese grass lizard (Takydromus tachydromoides) showed immunoreactivity against the light signal-transducing G-protein, transducin. This finding suggested that the PVO was a candidate for the deep-brain photoreceptor in this species. To understand functions of the PVO, we investigated distributions of transducin, serotonin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the lizard's brain. We immunohistochemically confirmed co-localization of transducin and serotonin in PVO neurons that showed structural characteristics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neurons. GnRH-immunoreactive (ir) cells were localized in the posterior commissure and lateral hypothalamic area. Some of the serotonin-ir fibers extending from the PVO to the lateral hypothalamic area contacted the GnRH-ir cell bodies. GnIH-ir cells were localized in the nucleus accumbens, paraventricular nucleus, and upper medulla, and GnIH-ir fibers from the paraventricular nucleus contacted the lateral processes of serotonin-ir neurons in the PVO. In addition, we found that serotonin-ir fibers from the PVO extended to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and the retrograde transport method confirmed the PVO projections to the SCN. These findings suggest that the PVO, by means of innervation mediated by serotonin, plays an important role in the regulation of pituitary function and the biological clock in the Japanese grass lizard., ZOOLOGICAL SOC JAPAN, Mar. 2006, ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 23 (3), 277 - 287, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal

  • Bistable UV pigment in the lamprey pineal

    M Koyanagi; E Kawano; Y Kinugawa; T Oishi; Y Shichida; S Tamotsu; A Terakita

    Lower vertebrates can detect UV light with the pineal complex independently of eyes. Electrophysiological studies, together with chromophore extraction analysis, have suggested that the underlying pigment in the lamprey pineal exhibits a bistable nature, that is, reversible photoreaction by UV and visible light, which is never achieved by known UV pigments. Here we addressed the molecular identification of the pineal UV receptor. Our results showed that the long-hypothesized pigment is a lamprey homologue of parapinopsin, which exhibits an absorption maximum at 370 nm, in the UV region. UV light causes cis-trans isomerization of its retinal(2) chromophore, forming a stable photoproduct having an absorption maximum at 515 nm, in the green region. The photoproduct reverts to the original pigment upon visible light absorption, showing photoregeneration of the pigment. In situ hybridization showed that parapinopsin is selectively expressed in the cells located in the dorsal region of the pineal organ. We successfully obtained the hyperpolarizing responses with a maximum sensitivity of approximate to380 nm from the photoreceptor cells at the dorsal region, in which the outer segment was clearly stained with anti-parapinopsin antibody. These results demonstrated that parapinopsin is the pineal UV pigment having photointerconvertible two stable states. The bistable nature of the parapinopsin can account for the photorecovery of the pineal UV sensitivity by background green light in the lamprey. Furthermore, we isolated the parapinopsin homologues from fish and frog pineal complexes that exhibit UV sensitivity, suggesting that parapinopsin is a common molecular basis for pineal UV reception in the vertebrate., NATL ACAD SCIENCES, Apr. 2004, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 101 (17), 6687 - 6691, doi;web_of_science

    Scientific journal


  • Optogenetic Potentials of Diverse Animal Opsins: Parapinopsin, Peropsin, LWS Bistable Opsin.

    Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Tomoka Saito; Seiji Wada; Takashi Nagata; Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Akihisa Terakita

    Animal opsin-based pigments are light-activated G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which drive signal transduction cascades via G-proteins. Thousands of animal opsins have been identified, and molecular phylogenetic and biochemical analyses have revealed the unexpected diversity in selectivity of G-protein activation and photochemical property. Here we discuss the optogenetic potentials of diverse animal opsins, particularly recently well-characterized three non-canonical opsins, parapinopsin, peropsin, and LWS bistable opsin. Unlike canonical opsins such as vertebrate visual opsins that have been conventionally used for optogenetic applications, these opsins are bistable; opsin-based pigments do not release the chromophore retinal after light absorption, and the stable photoproducts revert to their original dark states upon subsequent light absorption. Parapinopsins have a "complete photoregeneration ability," which allows a clear color-dependent regulation of signal transductions. On the other hand, peropsins serve as a "dark-active and light-inactivated" GPCR to regulate signal transductions in the opposite way compared with usual opsins. In addition, an LWS bistable opsin from a butterfly was revealed to be the longest wavelength-sensitive animal opsin with its absorption maximum at ~570 nm. The property-dependent optical regulations of signal transductions were demonstrated in mammalian cultured cells, showing potentials of new optogenetic tools., 2021, Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1293, 141 - 151, True, doi;pubmed

  • 松果体波長識別の分子基盤に関する分子生理学的解析と進化学的考察

    川野 絵美

    2015, 日本比較生理生化学, 32 (1), 2 - 9, doi

  • Evolution and diversity of opsins

    Akihisa Terakita; Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Mitsumasa Koyanagi

    Many animals capture light information via opsin-based pigments. Several thousands of opsins have been identified thus far and the opsin family is divided into eight groups. Members belonging to four out of the eight groups have been elucidated to couple to transducin, Go, Gs, and Gq, respectively, in photoreceptor cells. Accumulated evidence suggests a novel classification of the animal phototransductions, cyclic nucleotide signaling mediated by transducin, Go or Gs in ciliary photoreceptor cells and phosphoinositol signaling mediated by Gq in rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells. Varied opsin-based pigments are spectroscopically classified into two types, bleaching and bistable pigments that is, the photoproduct of vertebrate visual pigments dissociates its chromophore retinal over time and bleaches, whereas most other opsin-based pigments convert to a stable photoproduct, which can revert to original dark state by subsequent light absorption. Mutational analyses of the both types of pigments implied that during molecular evolution of the vertebrae visual pigments, displacement of the counterion, important amino acid residue for visible light absorption of opsin-based pigment, resulted in not only unique bleaching property but also acquisition of red-sensitive visual pigment and higher G-protein activation ability generated by larger light-induced conformational change of the pigment. Interestingly, a bleaching pigment rhodopsin and parapinopsin, which closely relates to the vertebrate visual pigment but has a bistable nature, couple to visual arrestin and β arrestin, respectively, in the lamprey pineal organ, suggesting the bleaching property also might facilitate the evolution of visual arrestin which is specialized for vertebrate visual function. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.., Jan. 2012, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Membrane Transport and Signaling, 1 (1), 104 - 111, doi

  • 脳室の感覚器官:室傍器官 -室傍器官と下垂体との関係-

    保智己; 川野絵美; 拜田由華

    2006, 比較生理生化学, 23 (3), 143 - 152, doi

  • ヤツメウナギにおける側眼と松果体の光受容細胞

    保智己; 稲垣公美; 川野絵美

    2005, 月刊 海洋/号外, 41, 238 - 246

  • Circadian rhythms in amphibians and reptiles: Ecological implications

    T Oishi; K Nagai; Y Harada; M Naruse; M Ohtani; E Kawano; S Tamotsu

    Circadian rhythms of amphibians and reptiles in the field and under semi-natural conditions and the underlying mechanisms, including the ways of entrainment to environmental cues and the oscillators driving the rhythms, have been reviewed. Studies on the behavioral rhythms in the field are meager in both amphibians and reptiles. In anuran amphibians, Xenopus adults showed more robust nocturnal locomotor activity than did tadpoles. This indicates the ecological significance of the differences in activity pattern shown by amphibians at different life stages, because differences between adults and young in the same environment may serve to isolate partially the young from the adults' cannibalism. In reptiles, free-running rhythms are more robust and continue for a longer time compared to amphibians. In both amphibians and reptiles, multi-photoreceptors are involved in photo-entrainment of circadian rhythms. The eyes, pineal complex and deep brain comprise a multi-oscillator system as well as a multi-photoreceptor system., SWETS ZEITLINGER PUBLISHERS, Feb. 2004, BIOLOGICAL RHYTHM RESEARCH, 35 (1-2), 105 - 120, doi;web_of_science

  • 松果体の光感覚と紫外光受容

    保智己; 川野絵美

    2004, 比較生理生化学, 21 (4), 185 - 194, doi

Books etc

  • 光と生命の事典

    (, Range: 非視覚系の波長識別)

    朝倉書店, 2016

  • Evolution of visual and non-visual pigments.

    (, Range: The evolution and diversity of pineal and parapineal photopigments.)

    Springer, 2014


  • The deep brain photoreceptor expressing non-visual opsins in lampreys


    日本動物学会第91回大会, 04 Sep. 2020, 04 Sep. 2020, 05 Sep. 2020

  • 無顎類ヤツメウナギの非視覚オプシンに着目した新規脳深部光受容器官の組織学的解析


    異分野融合による次世代光生物学 研究会, 07 Nov. 2019, 07 Nov. 2019, 08 Nov. 2019

  • ヤツメウナギ幼生に見られるphoto-kinesisへの松果体の役割

    坂井美咲; 熊田侑起; 山下(川野)絵美; 佐藤宏明; 保智己

    日本動物学会第90回大阪大会, 12 Sep. 2019, 12 Sep. 2019, 14 Sep. 2019

  • 無顎類ヤツメウナギの脳深部に存在する新規光受容器官の非視覚オプシンに着目した組織学的解析

    山下(川野)絵美; 由良南々帆; 小柳光正; 和田清二; 寺北明久; 保智己

    日本動物学会第90回大会, 12 Sep. 2019, 12 Sep. 2019, 14 Sep. 2019

  • Histochemical investigation of non-visual opsin-expressing photoreceptor cells in the larval and adult lamprey brains

    Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Satoshi Tamotsu; Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Seiji Wada; Akihisa Terakita

    日本比較生理生化学会40回神戸大会, 24 Nov. 2018, 23 Nov. 2018, 25 Nov. 2018

  • Functional coupling of a bistable opsin parapinopsin to G protein and arrestin

    Emi Kawano-Yamashita

    International symposium on biophysics of rhodopsins, 11 May 2017, 11 May 2017, 12 May 2017

Association Memberships

  • 日本動物学会

  • 日本比較生理生化学会

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